- Stroke - a serious brain injury
Stroke and its types
Stroke - an acute violation of cerebral circulation. Strokes can be ischemic or hemorrhagic.
Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a blood vessel bursts in the brain and the blood outlet into the brain. This is the most dangerous type of stroke.
Ischemic stroke occurs due to narrowing of blood vessels that supply a certain area of the brain, resulting in tissue death occurs region of the brain. Ischemic strokes are thrombotic, when the vessel lumen and closing the thrombus netromboticheskimi arising from the sudden contraction (spasm) of the vessel.
In Russia, the annual event more than 300,000 strokes a year mortality is 30% within one month from the date of the disease, and 45% - by the end of the year. About a quarter of stroke patients remain disabled, returned to normal life is not more than 12%.
The first signs of stroke
Such signs may be different, it all depends on the location and extent of brain damage. If the stroke occurred in the left half of the brain, its attributes appear on the right side of the body, and vice versa.
Immediately call an ambulance if the patient suddenly appeared in such features:
- loss of feeling (numbness) in any part of the body;
- blurred vision in one or both eyes, double vision;
- difficulty speaking or understanding it;
- loss of coordination, dizziness
Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
- very bad headache;
- loss of consciousness, and possibly seizures.
Ischemic stroke - cerebral infarction
Ischemic stroke - the most common type of stroke, he meets 4/5 of all patients, most often in middle-aged and elderly. Ischemic stroke can occur at any time, but most of 'his' time - in the morning or at night. Sometimes it happens after emotional or physical stress, alcohol consumption, taking a hot bath, etc.
Symptoms such stroke grow slowly for 2-3 days, with rarely any symptoms of brain lesions in general, typically show signs of destruction of a part of the brain, and depending on which zone there is located, and the symptoms manifest. This may be blurred vision, hearing, certain movements etc.
Hemorrhagic stroke - bleeding in the brain
A hemorrhagic stroke is less common than ischemic, often in 1/5 patients, but takes it harder and often occurs at a young age. Developing hemorrhagic stroke often with hypertension
Hypertensive heart disease - the prognosis is poor
(typically after emotional stress).
The symptoms of hemorrhagic stroke: there is, or is significantly enhanced headache, often on one side of the head, then the patient loses consciousness, fever, red face, breathing becomes hoarse, often repeated vomiting and seizures. When a patient regains consciousness, then his limbs are paralyzed. If the paralysis of the right side, he is accompanied by speech disorders if left - severe mental disorders: a person does not recognize loved ones.
Treatment of ischemic stroke is to restore normal blood flow in the affected area, for that appointed vasodilators, reducing blood clotting, resolve blood clots and restores blood circulation drugs. To remove from the blood of all the poisons and toxins, a variety of treatments for blood purification: hemosorbtion, plasmapheresis, ultraviolet and laser irradiation of blood. If such a way to cope with stroke fails, surgical treatment: removal of a blood clot from a blood vessel or restore blood flow to bypass the affected blood vessel (anastomosis).
In the treatment of hemorrhagic stroke, the main task is to strengthen the vascular wall and preventing the destruction of the formed thrombus, which is to close the rupture of the vessel. To do this, use drugs, reducing blood circulation, lowers blood pressure
Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?
, Dilates blood vessels. To prevent edema
Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause
brain appointed diuretics. But often in hemorrhagic stroke conservative treatments do not help, then surgical treatment.
The first (pre-medical) care for stroke
If the patient is unconscious, it is necessary to turn to the side, to unbutton his shirt, put something under his head and lay between the teeth several times a folded napkin and wipe the foam from your mouth, so she did not get into the respiratory tract.
Do not use ammonia (can cause respiratory arrest), to transfer the patient.
If a person is not detectable pulse, cardiac arrest and stopped breathing, you should immediately carry out chest compressions and artificial respiration "mouth to mouth" (five taps on the base of the palm area of the sternum - one breath).