Intracranial pressure in adults: what can be called
February 18, 2012
Intracranial pressure in adults, or intracranial hypertension - a condition in which the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid in the skull is too high.
CSF - is one of three structural components within the skull, in addition to the blood vessels necessary for normal functioning of the brain, and the brain itself. Under normal conditions, these three components function together, creating a delicate balance. Increasing any of these three components occurs at the expense of the other two, since the dimensions of the skull are not changed. For example, when cancer grows in the brain and thus increase its size squeezes blood vessels that disrupts blood flow to the brain and increases in intracranial pressure. Increased intracranial pressure is considered to be adults, exceed the value of two hundred and fifty millimeters of water column.
Increased intracranial pressure in adults: acute and chronic
There are two types of raised intracranial pressure
Increased intracranial pressure is dangerous for the brain
adults - acute intracranial hypertension and chronic hypertension.
Acute intracranial hypertension in adults - it is most often the result of severe cranial trauma or intracranial hemorrhage due to the rupture of the aneurysm, or a stroke. This condition is characterized, above all, very sharp, rapid rise in intracranial pressure in adults, which may be fatal. In many cases, the normalization condition of the patient and save his life kraniektomiya applied - procedure involves removing surgically separate sections of the skull to rapidly reduce intracranial pressure in adults.
Chronic intracranial hypertension - a completely different state, a neurological disorder in which intracranial pressure in adults remains elevated for a long period of time. Such an increase can occur without any known cause (called idiopathic intracranial hypertension) or be the result of an illness, injury, side effects of certain drugs (so-called secondary intracranial hypertension). Often chronic increased intracranial pressure in adults - a very long and unpleasant disease that has a significant impact on daily life.
Chronic intracranial hypertension can cause a number of quite serious consequences - and, in particular, fast developing visual impairment. Loss of vision, blindness caused by increased intracranial pressure in adults, is usually associated with swelling of the optic nerve resulting in intracranial hypertension. In addition, chronic increased intracranial pressure in adults is often accompanied by acute pains - including constant headaches, difficult to treat even the most effective drugs.
Chronic increased intracranial pressure is observed in adults, regardless of gender, health status, ethnicity and other factors. Although this condition is not usually fatal, the chronic treatment of intracranial hypertension can cause serious, sometimes life-threatening complications.
The main causes of secondary intracranial hypertension in adults
So-called secondary intracranial hypertension - is increased intracranial pressure caused by any disease, injury, in rare cases - certain medicines. The most common causes of this type of increased intracranial pressure in adults include:
- Head injuries (including post-traumatic skull)
- Stroke (subarachnoid hemorrhage)
- The side effects of certain medications, including tetracycline, minocycline, isotretinoin, nitrofurantoin, levonorgestrel. In some cases, cause an increase in intracranial pressure in adults may be hormone replacement therapy.
- Infectious diseases - including bacterial or viral meningitis
Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
Lyme disease, polio, encephalitis, syphilis
Syphilis - punishment of Venus
, Malaria, HIV, infectious mononucleosis.
- Other diseases: lupus, sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis - how to protect themselves?
(Boeck's disease), hypoparathyroidism (syndrome of insufficiency of the parathyroid gland), Addison's disease (chronic adrenal cortical insufficiency).
Parkinson's disease - where the nerve endings are destroyed
April 15, 2007
- Parkinson's disease - where the nerve endings are destroyed
Parkinson's disease affects the movement of the person. This is caused by problems in specific nerve cells of the brain. Normally, these nerve cells produce important stuff - dopamine. Dopamine sends signals to the part of the brain that control movement. This allows the muscles to move smoothly and to make any movement, what you want. In Parkinson's disease, these nerve cells are destroyed. It is not produced the desired amount of dopamine, and have problems with human movements.
Parkinson's disease - a progressive disease, that is, from the time a person becomes worse. But these changes generally occur slowly over several years. And there are tools to help Parkinson's disease lead full lives.
What causes Parkinson's disease?
It is unknown what causes the destruction and death of nerve cells. But scientists have conducted numerous studies to find the answer. We study various possible causes, including age-related changes and harmful substances in the environment.
Some people have Parkinson's disease, it seems, is a genetic anomaly. But the evidence that it is always a hereditary disease, no.
What are the symptoms?
The four main symptoms of Parkinson's disease are:
- Tremor, ie trembling limbs
- The inelastic muscles
- Slow motion
- Capacity problems with balance or walking
Tremor is often the first noticeable symptom. This is one of the most obvious signs of the disease, but does not occur in all patients. What is more important, is not always a tremor is a symptom of Parkinson's disease.
Tremor is often appears in one arm or leg or one side of the body. Tremors may be stronger when the limb does not move. Typically, the tremor decreases when moving or passes or when the person is asleep.
Over time, the effects of the disease spreading to all the muscles of the body, which may lead to problems with swallowing or constipation. In the later stages of Parkinson's disease in humans still evolving expression, speech difficulties and other problems. Some people violated mental functions (dementia).
Symptoms usually appear between the ages of 50-60 years. But sometimes it happens earlier.
As Parkinson's disease diagnosed?
Your doctor may ask questions about your symptoms and medical history, conduct a neurological examination (which may have questions, checking movements, strength, reflexes, vision). In some cases, the doctor may give a drug to act on it to determine whether a patient has Parkinson's disease.
How is Parkinson's disease?
Currently, Parkinson's disease can not be cured. But there are drugs that can control the symptoms and make life easier for the patient.
- While the symptoms are mild, your doctor may not prescribe any medication. They are usually prescribed when the symptoms begin to affect the patient's life.
- The most effective medicine to control the symptoms of Parkinson's disease is levodopa. Sometimes this drug is combined with other drugs. However, prolonged use of levodopa may cause problems. There are other drugs, but they have even more side effects. Medications are selected individually for each patient.
- In some cases, the method of neurostimulation, wherein in certain areas of the brain affected by the electrodes.
- To improve the condition of the patient is recommended to maintain a healthy lifestyle - eating right, relax, do exercises. Can help physiotherapy and occupational therapy.
As Parkinson's disease affects the patient's life?
Often people learn about the diagnosis, feelings of anger, fear, sadness or anxiety. In this case, it is important to remember some facts.
- No one knows how the disease will progress. This usually occurs slowly.
- Many people with Parkinson's disease continue to work for many years.
- It is important to actively take care of their health, to learn more about the disease, find a doctor who inspires confidence and be sure to carry out all his instructions.
- People with Parkinson's disease often depression
Depression - a little more than a bad mood
. In such cases should be referred to a therapist, who may prescribe antidepressants.
- You can find support groups or forums where people communicate with the same problem, and do not feel lonely.
- Parkinson's disease affects not only the patient but also to his family. Be aware of them and solve problems together.