The diagnosis of mental illness
Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?
easy to install, it usually occurs during a sufficiently long observation of the patient in the hospital. Additional methods of research in psychiatry do not have as much value as in other branches of medicine. Therefore, as an aid to diagnosis using various psychological tests.
Theoretical Foundations of testing in psychiatry
Psychological tests, which are used in psychiatry - a standardized task, the result of which is a measure certain mental and personality characteristics of the patient, as well as to assess their knowledge and skills. These tests must meet the following requirements:
- Standard - permanence of jobs and the conditions of its implementation;
- objectivity - that is, to minimize the possibility for the investigated purposefully influence the results of the study;
- Reliability - it is defined by a high degree of similarity between the results of repeated measurements on one and the same subject without changing its state.
Theoretical basis of the test have been developed in English psychologist Hamilton at the end of the 19th century. Currently, psychiatry is used a lot of tests that allow a better understanding of the patient's personality, his intellectual abilities and attitude to the world. The tests often help to reveal hidden forms of mental illness, the risk of acute illness, suicide attempts and aggression, various types of simulation and so on.
Types of psychological tests used in psychiatry
Psychological tests used in psychiatry, divided into test efficiency and personality tests. Tests of efficiency (productivity) allow us to estimate the intellectual activities (thinking, memory, attention), general and special abilities.
Personality tests are in turn divided into subjective, projective and objective. Subjective personality tests include the scale of self-esteem, attitudes and interests. When projective personality test under study presented indeterminate material that it should logically complement and interpret. Objective tests are tests by which to assess the real actions of the subject.
Tests are also divided into individual and group, allow to allocate the last people who need a deeper examination. There are verbal tests (they require a verbal response) and nonverbal (tasks for manipulation, for example, folding integral figure of the individual parts), written, oral and hardware.
Tests on efficiency
The most commonly used test is the test of intellectual Wechsler, which is a collection of 11 classic techniques combined into one based on a special statistical processing of the results of each method. Of these 6 tasks of verbal and non-verbal 5.
Answers are evaluated according to the established scale. The number of points received in all tasks through the appropriate translation tables in IQ (IQ). Wechsler test reveals not only intelligence, but also allows you to assess the degree of intellectual disability and mental retardation
Mental retardation - if the mind is underdeveloped
Ie mental retardation.
The tests of general ability to identify and account ownership of speech, the accuracy of perception, the ability to highlight important details in the speech, responsiveness and so on. Tests of special abilities today are organized on the computer, it automatically allows you to evaluate not only the correct answer, but the time of their execution.
Among the subjective personality tests in the psychiatric practice, the most common scale Beck and Zung. They allow you to track, for example, change the signs of depression
Depression - a little more than a bad mood
under the influence of treatment.
From the most common personality questionnaires Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory (MMPI). It consists of 550 cards with statements. Depending on the attitude to them ("correct", "incorrect", "do not know") lays out the test cards into three groups. Processing of the results gives the profile, which is then interpreted. The test reveals aggravation (exaggerated painful disorders), dissimulation (concealing evidence of disease) and the desire to show themselves in the best light. Additional scales allow the use of MMPI questionnaire for the narrower purpose of identifying specific symptoms. All personality tests have special options for the study of children. The original patoharakterologicheskie Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDO) for the detection of abnormalities of personality in adolescents was developed AE Licko.
From projective personality tests most famous is the Rorschach (inkblot test), based on an analysis of the perception of meaningless test standard stains. This test is used to detect a variety of mental disorders, determining the risk of suicide and aggression.
An example of objective personality tests are tests for conformity, that is, the degree of stability of opinions, preferences and behavior of the test group with the pressure of a front group of 7-9 people, which acts on the pre-approved plan.
As psychiatric examination conducted by means of tests
The most effective is the use of the battery (test suite), compiled in accordance with the objectives of the study. For example, to confirm the diagnosis of schizophrenia
Schizophrenia - to blame civilization
It is considered the most effective battery consisting of Rorschach, MMPI and other tests. Such a battery is complemented by the use of other techniques (for example, the classification of objects and other), as well as data of clinical examination of the patient.