Forensic psychiatric examination - a difficult and responsible job

August 12, 2010

 forensic psychiatric examination
 In Russia, for the first time on the non-responsibility for the murder of the mentally ill and the inability to attract them as witnesses mentioned in the mid-17th century. In the 19th century Russia developed the scientific basis of psychiatric examination, the criteria for insanity, and so on. But for the first time the position of the forensic psychiatric examination in the country was approved in 1919.

 Forensic psychiatric examination - a difficult and responsible job

What is a forensic psychiatric examination

Forensic psychiatric examination - a survey of psychiatric experts untried persons or persons in custody in the event of doubt as to their mental health. The findings are in the nature of independent examination of forensic evidence. Appointed such expertise in criminal and civil proceedings, when there is a need for a special psychiatric examination of the defendant, witness, victim, civil plaintiff or defendant.

In a criminal case examination is appointed to determine the mental condition of the accused (suspect, witness, victim) if there are doubts about his sanity or ability to realize their actions (insanity - it is the mental state of a person during the commission of a crime which does not allow to impute to it blame the act). The examination also provides an opinion on the need for compulsory medical measures to persons who have transgressed the law.

In civil proceedings examination is carried out to establish the mental state of the person in respect of which addressed the issue of its capacity (ie ability to exercise their civil rights), and (if necessary) to determine the mental state of others involved in the process.

 Forensic psychiatric examination - a difficult and responsible job

Objectives and procedure for

Forensic psychiatric examination is one of the most complex and important sections of psychiatry. Its tasks include diagnosis of mental disorder and its evaluation, that is, determination of the depth (gravity) disorder in relation to the criteria contained in the law of insanity, disability and so on.

The procedure for appointment and examination is regulated by the Russian legislation, including the Law of the Russian Federation of July 2, 1992 N 3185-I «On psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision." Forensic psychiatric expert can only be a psychiatrist. For examination at the mental hospital established forensic expert commission.

Psychiatric expert legal rights provided by law for comprehensive, complete and objective expert studies, including familiarity with the case materials, and (if necessary) participation in the interrogation of suspects.

 Forensic psychiatric examination - a difficult and responsible job

Types of forensic psychiatric examination

Depending on the conditions in which the examination is being conducted, there are several types of it: outpatient, in the investigator's office, in a court session, stationary, correspondence.

Distance examination is carried out by the criminal or civil case, if the defendant is absent for any reason (or died). Outpatient examination is carried out at a mental hospital, where there is a special expert committee.

For stationary examination in psychiatric hospitals organized special protected branch or ward. In the most difficult cases, the examination is carried out in the State Research Center for Social and Forensic Psychiatry. VP Serbsky (Moscow). When the behavior of expertise applied all accepted methods of diagnosis in psychiatry, and, if necessary, and treatment is carried out. Term stationary inspection should not exceed one month. If this deadline will be enough for the examination at the request of the commission of forensic investigative agencies it is renewed.

 Forensic psychiatric examination - a difficult and responsible job

Expert opinion

The results of the forensic psychiatric examination are issued in the form of imprisonment. The structure of this document is defined by law. The conclusion is: an introduction (justification for the examination), information about past life, this disease, a complete description of the state of the person who carried out the examination, and the final part containing conclusions of the experts and their rationale.

Expert reports are categorically allegedly not allowed to enter into. The conclusion should be clear, not only for doctors, but also for non-specialists in the field of psychiatry. It is signed by all members of the commission, and in case of differences of opinion every psychiatrist constitute an independent conclusion.

Expert opinion is evaluated authority who appointed the examination and the court to which it is a recommendation.

Galina Romanenko

Sleepwalking - dangerous to walk in a dream?

May 10, 2009

 At all times the sleepwalking was shrouded in mystery, he was surrounded by plenty of myths and myths. And in our time, all the mysteries of sleepwalking is not completely solved. Despite significant scientific and technological progress and in particular the progress of medical science, all that is beyond the threshold of consciousness, are still not fully understood.

 Sleepwalking - dangerous to walk in a dream?

Sleep and its component parts

Sleep - is the functional state of the brain and body of man, which is characterized by inhibition of the active interaction with the environment and conscious of partial cessation of mental activity.

Sleep is divided into two phases: slow fast. The slow phase in turn is divided into slumber, the average sleep and deep sleep and occupies about 80% of total sleep. REM sleep is also called sleep with rapid eye movements - it occupies 20% of the night's sleep.

Night sleep a person consists of 3-5 cycles lasting for 1, 5-2 hours. Each cycle consists of individual stages of fast and slow wave sleep. Deep REM sleep is characterized for the first two cycles of night sleep, fast - for the latest cycle (early morning), it is during REM sleep we see the dream.

 Sleepwalking - dangerous to walk in a dream?

What Is Sleepwalking

Sleepwalking or somnambulism is also called sleepwalking. This is a sleep disorder characterized by the usual automatic movements during sleep that after waking up completely forgotten. Human behavior in this complex and seemingly purposeful (often corresponding dreams), but unconscious.

The cause of somnambulism - a violation of the slow phase of sleep, and the inhibition of the central nervous system during sleep does not apply to areas of the brain that determine the motor function. It starts usually in 1, 5-2 hours after falling asleep. Sleepwalking occurs in various disorders of the central nervous system.

 Sleepwalking - dangerous to walk in a dream?

Neurotic and paroxysmal somnambulism

Sleepwalking can be divided into two large groups associated with neurotic changes (in neurasthenia, hysteria) and paroxysmal that occur during the initial stage of epilepsy.

Sleepwalking is peculiar neurotic children, when the nervous system is not yet matured and because of that can happen, this sleep disorder Violation of sleep - severe consequences of the usual disorders  Violation of sleep - severe consequences of the usual disorders
 . This somnambulism is characterized by episodic character and the wave of emotions of the day. Actions under him may be related to the content of dreams Dreams: how to understand our dreams  Dreams: how to understand our dreams
 , With possible partial contact with the child.

In epilepsy somnambulism is regular and the same type of character, often accompanied by involuntary urination, contact with a patient at the same time is impossible.

 Sleepwalking - dangerous to walk in a dream?

Signs of somnambulism

When somnambulism sleeping person gets out of bed and moved not for any purposes or in accordance with a dream, in the morning the memory of this persists vague or absent. The patient is talking in his sleep, he sits up in bed, gets up and makes a number of stereotypes, but apparently purposeful movements with his eyes open. At this point, a man celebrated frozen look and constricted pupils. After some time, the patient returns to bed and goes to sleep. In the morning he does not remember anything. This sleep disorder can last from several minutes to an hour. Sometimes the actions of these patients may be of antisocial and even criminal character.

 Sleepwalking - dangerous to walk in a dream?


Neurotic somnambulism necessarily need to be distinguished from paroxysmal. This can help in electroencephalography (EEG), which can be seen early signs of epilepsy Epilepsy - a sacred disease  Epilepsy - a sacred disease

 Sleepwalking - dangerous to walk in a dream?

Treatment somnambulism

Somnambulism Treatment should consist of identifying and treating the underlying disease that caused somnambulism. It can be various neurotic disorders, which often occur in childhood and adolescence. In this case, treatment should be aimed at restoring normal sleep and central nervous system. In some cases, to stop the attacks is enough light and soothing herbal sleeping pills.

When paroxysmal somnambulism conduct a thorough examination in order to ascertain the cause of the seizures. In addition to the innate predisposition to epilepsy, seizures can be caused by a brain tumor Brain tumor - surgery inevitable  Brain tumor - surgery inevitable
   or be a consequence of the trauma of the brain. Treatment in these cases is carried out strictly individually.

 Sleepwalking - dangerous to walk in a dream?

Prevention somnambulism

Prevention of sleep disorders is to prevent diseases that can cause them. For example, children should alternate between waking and active lifestyle with rest and sleep. We can not allow over-the kids, especially with sensitive, easily excitable nervous system.

Watch out for the sleep characteristics of their children - in time you will be able to notice signs of somnambulism and on time to ask for help.

  Galina Romanenko

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