Manic-depressive illness - which phases are the most dangerous?

July 19, 2009

  • Manic-depressive illness - which phases are the most dangerous?
  • Dangerous Phase

 Affective insanity
 In recent years, largely reviewed the causes of bipolar disorder, but the importance of heredity is not denied by anybody. Moreover, new studies confirm the fundamental role of heredity in the development of this disease.

 Manic-depressive illness - which phases are the most dangerous?

Evidence for the role of heredity in the development of manic-depressive psychosis

The final cause of manic-depressive psychosis (MDP) is not clear, but modern researchers are increasingly coming to the conclusion that the disease is polyetiological, that is caused by various reasons. The role of heredity in this case there is no denying it is still considered the main cause of the disease.

As a result of numerous studies in the past and in the present, it found that in families of probands (people who make up for the Pedigree, brothers and sisters of the proband are called siblings) with suspected TIR incidence of this disease is much higher than in the general population. At the same time it increased the number of patients in the descending generations as compared to the rising: in the general population in the proportion of patients TIR account for about 0, 4%, then the proband's parents - from 7 to 23%, and the children of the proband - up to 33%.

Twin method importance of heredity was revealed clearly: family history among siblings was diagnosed in 18% of patients, among dizygotic twins - 23% among monozygotic - 92% - all this suggests that matters the degree of proximity of blood.

In families where there are sick TIR and constitutional characteristics of personality: some of them are inherited, and formed part of the social environment. These are people with tsiklopodobnymi mood swings, their number increases depending on the degree of kinship with the patient TIR: in a population of 0, 7%, the parents of patients - 14, 5%, the brothers and sisters - 12, 9% in dizygotic twins If you have twins: Ten Smiles  If you have twins: Ten Smiles
   - 30%, between identical - 37%.

In families where there are sick TIR identified as schizophrenia Schizophrenia - to blame civilization  Schizophrenia - to blame civilization
   and other mental illnesses Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?  Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?
 The number of which increases with each generation.

 Manic-depressive illness - which phases are the most dangerous?

Heredity in different types of manic-depressive psychosis

In recent years the link has been established nature of the flow of the TIR role of heredity in the development of the disease. Current Carnet may be monophasic (unipolar) when the dominated one phase of the disease (often it happens depression Depression - a little more than a bad mood  Depression - a little more than a bad mood
   and very rarely - mania) bipolar and when there are two phases, successive (depression and mania).

While numerous studies have found that patients with bipolar course TIR marked a pronounced family history than with monopolar current. In the first case, the disease starts earlier (at a younger age) and more severe.

These studies have raised the assumption that patients with unipolar MIS over the development of the disease largely caused by mental stress, exhaustion of regulatory systems in the brain and to a lesser degree - heredity or other organic changes in the brain. In patients with bipolar over the TIR has a rougher, hereditary or acquired brain damage, which leads to disruption of the regulatory powers of the brain.

Proof of this study is that family history was detected in patients with bipolar disease course more often than monopolar. Furthermore, it was found that patients with bipolar course TIR, which showed no hereditary "roots" of the disease, the cause of the disease has been the combination of external actions with organic changes in the brain (impact injury, disease and so forth).

In addition, it has been studied and constitutional features of patients with mono- and bipolar course Carnet. It was established that during the bipolar TIR often develops in people with normotimnym character without pronounced mental disorders. Monopolar for TIR is observed mainly in patients with psihostenicheskimi traits that are not self-confident, very conscientious and careful.

 Manic-depressive illness - which phases are the most dangerous?

What happens in the brain of the patient

Today it is established that the development of the TIR associated with impaired neurotransmission in the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus and other brain regions corresponding to the formation of major mental reactions such as mood, feeling, wakefulness, speed mental reactions and so on. Transfer violated in the synapse (the junction of individual neurons), due to a lack of neurotransmitters - biologically active substances, which are transmitted via pulses.

Manic-depressive illness - is a complex, not yet fully understood disease in which heredity plays a significant role.

Claustrophobia - try to normalize breathing

December 27, 2013

 Claustrophobia - is an irrational fear of enclosed space, which, according to approximate data affects about 10% of people. Some of them got into the enclosed space, experiencing mild anxiety, while in others, this situation can cause intense fear and even panic attacks.

Claustrophobia can cause elevators, tunnels and revolving doors, public toilets, MRI scanners, car, fitting shops, airplanes, and so on. If during the last six months, you do not just have to feel anxiety, being in a closed space, there is a high probability that you have claustrophobia.


Symptoms of claustrophobia

The most common symptom is a claustrophobic panic attack Panic attacks - fear of nowhere  Panic attacks - fear of nowhere
 . It, in turn, causes the following symptoms that are more or less marked:

  • Sweating;
  • Tremor;
  • Hot flashes or chills;
  • Nausea;
  • Cardiopalmus;
  • Numbness or tingling of extremities;
  • Headache;
  • Dizziness;
  • The feeling of tightness in the chest;
  • Heavy breathing;
  • Dry mouth;
  • Ringing in the ears.

People suffering from claustrophobia, as the following may appear psychological symptoms:

  • Fear of losing control;
  • Fear of fainting;
  • Fear of death.


The cycle of fear

When a person is faced with a trigger of their phobia - in the case of claustrophobia is a closed space - launched the so-called cycle of fear .  Seeing the trigger, he recalls the past situation, when he was already bad and scary in a confined space .  This in itself causes negative emotions and at the same time, the person imagines what might happen to him in this situation (the horrible pictures can be quite unrealistic, but man draws them to himself unconsciously, and a little worried about their credibility), from which emotions are even stronger .  The person feels bad because of their own fear, but also because of the fears that people around might notice his condition .  He is afraid of losing control, fainting and so on, negative emotions are magnified, imaginary catastrophe of this becoming worse - and the cycle is repeated many times, very fast and against the will of man .  This may result in a real panic, which does not correspond to the situation, but it is very strong, up to total loss of control over a .


Causes of claustrophobia

Often claustrophobia is the result of traumatic events in early childhood. For example, a person could be locked in a cabinet peers during the game and, even if he does not remember such a seemingly insignificant event can lifelong cause him panic attacks when he is in any confined space. Children whose parents suffer from claustrophobia may themselves "infected" is a phobia, as enclosed spaces they will be associated with anxiety and feelings of helplessness of parents on what they can not help a loved one.


Help with claustrophobia

Most people who suffer from claustrophobia, fully aware of this. Many of them do not go to the doctor, and just try to avoid closed spaces. However, professional help, for example, a psychologist at the claustrophobia can be very useful.

One of the ways to treat claustrophobia - desensitization. The basic principle is that a person must regularly find themselves in situations that cause fear him: first - for a short time, and then - to the increasingly long time. You can do this yourself, or follow the recommendations of the expert.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy is often very helpful for people suffering from claustrophobia. With the help of a therapist man learns to effectively cope with their fears, to control their emotions Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code  Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code
   and behavior.

Many people decide on their own to cope with claustrophobia, and the following recommendations addressed to them.

  • Firstly, attempts to leave your own review or rational arguments to convince myself not to be afraid. Your fear is irrational, and none of the arguments of reason will not help.
  • Second, you must believe that to cope with bouts of claustrophobia possible. Well, if you can talk with people who have already overcome this phobia or the other - then you will not believe, and know.
  • Third, if you really want to deal with the claustrophobia, do not try to avoid places that cause you fear. Good or bad, but can not overcome the fear in absentia, without encountering him face to face.

Caught in a confined space, do not use the technique, which is so often and erroneously recommend - do not breathe deeply: hyperventilation only exacerbate the problem. And do not hold your breath - it will only increase the internal tension. Just try to breathe as usual, without succumbing to anxiety.

Concentrate on what some interior details - for example, the elevator button on the handle or the door. Explore these items to the smallest detail, a detailed description of himself. Do this in spite of the fear, force of will return the focus to the object of observation - your task is to escape from his own fear.

Try to blow up their own: Imagine the worst thing that can happen in your situation (for example, when you are in the dressing room or in the elevator), add more and more gruesome details, until you discover that the situation has become ridiculously terrible. Use the most impossible scenario: a terrorist attack (what is the probability that she undergo exactly are you?), The fall of the meteorite, earthquakes, tornadoes, alien invasion. You need to exaggerate your own as long as it does not explode - at the same time you will be surprised of his imagination, which is not excluded, would be the envy of Hollywood screenwriters. Suppress your own, on the other hand, is quite useless.

Mess. If you are close to the people, and you are worried that they will notice your state, joked about his own fear - it will add confidence and help relieve the tension a little.

Article Tags:
  • Phobias