- Fracture pelvis - than it threatens?
- Causes and symptoms
How does the pelvis
Taz - a part of the skeleton, which is attached to both the spine and lower limbs, is the support for the spine and the seat of a number of vital organs. The pelvis is formed by two hip bones (each hip bone consists of three accrete bones - the ilium, pubis and ischium) and sacrococcygeal spine bone connected to the ring, which is formed inside the cavity enclosing the internal organs. Front hip bones are connected to each other (pubic symphysis), and the rear are attached to the sacrum, forming on both sides of sacroiliac joints. On the outer surface of the pelvic bone has acetabulum - a place of articulation with the head of the femur.
The pelvis is divided into high (top) and low (bottom). Large pelvic cavity is the lower abdomen, in the pelvis situated bladder
Urinary bladder - structure and function
, Rectum and internal reproductive organs.
Causes and types of pelvic fracture
Fractures of the pelvis are usually severe damage to the musculoskeletal system. They occur predominantly in road accidents and falls from a height. Fractures of the pelvis may be selected when applying direct blow or sudden muscle tension. Almost half of fractures of the pelvis combined with fractures of other bones and damage internal organs.
There are four main types of pelvic fractures: fractures of the edge (on- and iliac fractures, fractures of the coccyx and sacrum below the sacroiliac joint) fractures without disrupting the continuity of the pelvic ring, a violation of its continuity and acetabular fractures. In addition, isolated fractures, breaking the continuity of only one (front or rear), and the Department of the pelvic ring injuries, breaking the continuity simultaneously in both departments.
Symptoms of pelvic fracture
Symptoms of pelvic fracture depend on the nature of fracture and related injuries. When marginal fractures, when there is a fracture or bone avulsion edge, state of the victims are usually satisfactory.
For fractures of the ilium appears swelling and tenderness in the area of damage, as well as violation of the respective legs. The pain can be amplified when trying to bend the hip, but moving back pain may be less pronounced.
Marginal fracture of the coccyx and sacrum below the junction of the spine to the pelvic bones appear soreness in the area of the fracture, increasing walking and sitting.
Fractures of the anterior part of the pelvis, particularly in violation of the continuity of the pelvic ring may be accompanied by a deterioration of general condition of the victim. They often take the "frog posture" - forced position with legs bent at the hip and knee joints and lower limbs divorced. In some cases, the symptom appears "stuck heel" - the victim can not raise outstretched leg. One of the regular features of bone fractures of the anterior part of the pelvis is a dysfunction of the lower limbs (inability to move).
In 2-3 days after the injury may occur in the surrounding tissue bruising in the groin or crotch.
Isolated damage to the bones of the rear division of the pelvic ring in violation of its continuity are extremely rare, often observed simultaneous destruction of its front and rear sections. The victims in this case are usually in a state of traumatic shock caused by massive trauma and blood loss. Bleeding in fractures of the pelvis is usually pronounced and prolonged, stop the bleeding may start again at the slightest shake of the victim.
Diagnosis and treatment of fractures of the pelvis
Diagnosis is based on typical manifestations of trauma and confirmed by means of X-ray studies.
Treatment of severe pelvic fractures usually begins with antishock measures: carried out anesthesia and blood loss is compensated.
For fractures of the iliac bone, pelvic ring fractures without violating the continuity of the patient is placed for 3-4 weeks on a board with a roll in the popliteal region.
When fractures of the anterior pelvic ring offset held skeletal traction for tibial tuberosity with small weights (3-4 kg) at a dilution of the limbs.
The most difficult treatment - a treatment of patients with broken bones while the front and rear parts of the pelvic ring. They are usually hung in a special gamachke with a load of 5-8 kg. Bed rest is stored up to three months. If the fracture is not fused, disrupted the stability of the pelvic ring in these cases shows the operation.
First aid in cases of suspected pelvic fracture
In order to avoid bias fragments broken bones or damage to the pelvic organs, the victim must be put on a hard surface, even better - directly on the board (for example, removed the door from its hinges), in a position to take him to the hospital. The victim is bent limbs in hip and knee joints, under knees enclose rollers (eg, folded clothes). Then call an ambulance and deliver the injured to hospital.