Longitudinal flat - one of the most common types of flatfoot; It occurs in approximately 20% of patients with this disorder. Longitudinal flat with about equal frequency occurs in different age groups.
Normally, the width of the middle part of the foot print should be between a quarter and a third of the width of the forefoot - sock. When longitudinal flat first-degree width of the midfoot is approximately half the width of the nose. In the final, fourth stage of the midfoot may be wider front. With this degree of longitudinal flat foot can come into contact with their entire surface area.
Typically, patients do not notice any symptoms first stage longitudinal flat. In the second stage from time to time may occur pain in the legs
Pain in the legs - from which they arise?
; Sometimes patients complain of excessive fatigue after long walks. In the third and fourth stages of almost all patients experience severe discomfort, but there are exceptions. A significant part of the athletes involved in sports and walking in this area have achieved more or less significant progress, there is a longitudinal flat third or fourth degree, but few of them complain of pain when walking.
Reasons longitudinal flat could be a variety of injuries and diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis
Arthritis - a variety of forms and complications
, Stroke, or diabetes. Its development has also been associated with birth weight and characteristics of the organism of the human body. Sometimes flat occurs in pregnant women - it is not associated with weight gain and hormonal changes that contribute to the relaxation of connective tissue.
In most cases, a longitudinal flat feet do not cause severe discomfort, and does not require treatment. Flat feet in children may be corrected with the help of special exercises. Adult patients with flatfoot longitudinal usually recommended to wear orthopedic shoes
Orthopedic shoes - how to determine what is right for you?
or use special insoles that support the arch of the foot and ease the discomfort when walking. To correct the flatfoot is very useful to walk barefoot, especially on the pebble beach - it perfectly develops the muscles of the foot.
In very rare cases, a longitudinal flat feet treated by surgery.
Longitudinal flat - a flattening of the longitudinal arch of the foot, there is the weakness of the foot and leg muscles with increasing body weight, the upright, decreasing muscle strength during physiological aging, lack of muscle training in patients sedentary profession, injuries and so on. Internal factors contributing to the development of a longitudinal flat feet, is the constitutional and hereditary predisposition.
At external examination can detect the presence of flat feet in the advanced degree. For a more accurate determination of the plane of the foot, there are several methods:
- Podometry method is that the measured height of the foot, which is the distance from the floor to place on the finger in front of the ankle (a); then measure the length of the foot (B - the distance from the tip of the I toe to the back surface of the heel); by simple calculations (a × 100 / b) receive podometric index, the value of which indicates the presence or absence of flatfoot (norm 31-29);
- plantography method - getting footprints; It is applied to the sole coloring material, and then turns on the print paper;
- X-ray studies that confirm and clarify the data obtained in other studies.
For longitudinal flat characterized by certain painful areas:
- in the center of the arch and inside the heel on the sole;
- at the center rear of the foot;
- under the ankles;
- in the calf muscles;
- in the knee and hip joints due to violations of biomechanics;
- hip due to overexertion of muscles;
- in the lumbar region due to the enhanced compensatory lordosis (curvature of the spine anteriorly).
Increased pain is noted after prolonged load (standing, walking), but after resting pain usually held. Often swollen feet, including in the area of the outer ankle.
To express the longitudinal flat typical of the following signs: stop extended and expanded in the middle of the longitudinal arch is lowered, the foot turned outwards, clumsy gait, socks much separated the sides, sometimes limited range of motion in all joints of the feet.
Treatment of cross flatfoot
Treatment of cross flatfoot is wearing orthopedic shoes or special supplementary devices. When the initial shape of the cross flatfoot use removable insoles made factory method. In advanced cases, a manufacturer of shoes or insoles on special casts of the patient's legs.
In severe forms of flat feet, causing persistent severe pain, operations are carried out: on the muscles (the redistribution of stress on the arch by transplanting the attachment points of the lower leg muscles) and bones.
Preventing cross flatfoot
Cross-flat - a disease of obese women
It is to form the correct gait - are not spreading in the direction of socks. People who are forced to be in a long-standing position, the feet should be kept strictly parallel to each other and to relieve tension intermittently for a few seconds on the outer edges of the feet. Good effect have a warm foot bath and foot massage. Of great importance is physiotherapy, outdoor games, cycling, walking barefoot, and so on.
Pick up shoes must be very meticulously that it is not squeezed toes, especially the big toe. Therefore socks purchased shoes should be wide, spacious life, and she shoes fit the foot. The heel should be low and stable.
Transverse flatfoot often occur not hard, but it certainly needs to be corrected, otherwise the problem will become very large.