Placenta - an organ that performs all types of communication between a pregnant woman and the fetus. Therefore, any violations of the structure, location or operation of the placenta certainly affect the condition of mother and child. Many women are afraid of the word "aging of the placenta." Is it really so terrible?
What is placenta
The placenta is also called the afterbirth. It is designed to nourish, to supply oxygen to protect the growing fetus from infections and maintain a state of pregnancy (in the placenta produces a number of hormones that support pregnancy). Non-pregnant women do not have a placenta, it is formed during pregnancy and ceases to exist after the birth.
Placenta is given disk diameter of about 20 cm, 3 cm thick and weighing about 0, 5 kg. One side of the disc facing the fetus and from the umbilical cord extends, in which arteries and veins are located, bringing and carrying away the blood of the fetus. On the other side of the disc looks like villi, buried in the wall of the uterus and is washed by the blood of the mother.
Through a thin placenta comes metabolism
Improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting
: From maternal blood to fetal blood permeate oxygen and nutrients in the blood of the mother nucleus receives carbon dioxide and metabolic products.
As the placenta is formed and aging
The placenta begins to form on day 12 of pregnancy, when the fertilized egg is embedded in the uterine lining. Until that time, the power of the embryo is carried out independently, using its own resources. Up to 12 days of pregnancy the egg is not connected with the mother's blood and therefore toxic effects (reception mother liquor, various drugs, smoking and so forth) can not damage it. After 12 days of starting the formation of the placenta, and all the toxic effects on the mother affect the condition of the fetus.
Fully placenta is formed by the end of the third month of pregnancy, then it is changing, adapting to the needs of the growing fetus.
The placenta grows with the growth of the fetus, as well as the child needs more and more nutrients, weight and size of the placenta are increasing. Placental villi acquire branched form, they increase the number of blood vessels. The placenta reaches full maturity a month before the birth.
In late pregnancy (at 36-37 weeks) begins a gradual physiological aging of the placenta, accompanied by a decrease in the area of its exchange surface, the appearance of areas of salt deposits
The deposition of salts - a disease of old men?
. During birth the placenta is born after the fetus looks like a disk mass of about 0, 5 kg.
There are several degrees of maturity of the placenta (placenta maturity is determined by ultrasound). Each has its own gestation maturity mismatch is detected and if these figures, we speak of premature aging of the placenta.
Why placenta is aging prematurely
In some cases, the process of aging of the placenta begins too early, and the placenta can not provide the child with all the necessary nutrients and oxygen. About premature aging of placenta say when a second degree of maturity before 32 weeks, and the third - before 36 weeks of pregnancy.
When premature aging of placenta violated its blood supply in the placenta develop metabolic disorders, which necessarily affects the state of the fetus, that is, there are signs of placental insufficiency. Risk factors for premature aging of the placenta are injured uterus toxic effects on the mother's body:
- previous abortions and obstructed labor (they break the power structure and the wall of the uterus);
- endocrine diseases (e.g., thyroid
Thyroid disease - women at risk
or diabetes mellitus
Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease
Which almost always reflects on the state of the blood vessels);
- any chronic disease mother (e.g., kidney disease, cardiovascular, cancer, etc.);
- blood incompatibility of mother and fetus of Rh factor in repeat pregnancies (first pregnancy usually passes without conflict);
- heavy toxicosis second half of pregnancy (preeclampsia);
- infection of the uterus;
- attachment of the placenta close to the cervix or partial detachment;
- multiple pregnancy.
Signs of placental insufficiency and its consequences
Placental insufficiency is often asymptomatic, so that's why you need constant monitoring obstetrician-gynecologist of female consultation and an ultrasound.
Insufficient function of the placenta during early pregnancy can lead to the formation of a frozen pregnancy or congenital malformations of the fetus. After the fourth month of pregnancy, placental insufficiency leading to fetal hypoxia (insufficient oxygen supply, which is why the first to suffer brain child) and delay its development.
What if placental insufficiency still come
If a pregnant woman is constantly observed the doctor, the placental insufficiency, as a rule, it does not threaten, as the doctor will take all necessary measures to eliminate violations of the blood supply of the fetus and prevent serious complications. If outpatient treatment does not help and resolve placental insufficiency fails, send a woman to the maternity hospital to maintain pregnancy.
Remember: to give up the treatment of placental insufficiency can not be, it can seriously affect the health of the child.