Rh-conflict pregnancy: important studies

October 26th, 2011

 Rh-conflict pregnancy
 Scientists have found that about eighty-five percent of people are Rh positive, and the other fifteen - Rh negative. In ordinary life, presence or absence of Rh factor does not pose any danger, but can lead to Rh-conflict pregnancy. Rh-conflict pregnancy threatens complications such as the development of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, miscarriage, premature birth or even death of the fetus or newborn.

 Rh-conflict pregnancy: important studies

What Is Rh?

Rh factor first identified in rhesus macaques, why it got its name. Rh factor is a protein that attaches to red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen. Rh factor is determined together with blood. The presence or absence of Rh factor is incorporated genetically, that is, from the moment of fertilization.

 Rh-conflict pregnancy: important studies

Rh-conflict pregnancy

Rhesus-conflict develops during pregnancy if the mother is Rh-negative, Rh-positive father, and the child inherits the Rh-positive blood. In such a case likely to develop Rh-conflict, and the higher it is, the more it was pregnancy, including abortion, miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. The main manifestation of Rh-conflict pregnancy is that when released into the mother's blood is Rh-positive red blood cells of the fetus in the mother's bloodstream begin to form Rh antibodies. Rh antibodies, in turn, enter the bloodstream of the fetus, which start to destroy red blood cells, leading to the development of hemolytic disease of the fetus.

 Rh-conflict pregnancy: important studies

Factors contributing to the formation of antibodies antirhesus

All the factors are divided into three groups:

  • Contact with the blood of the fetus in the mother's blood

This happens most often during childbirth, while abortion or miscarriage, threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy, during amniocentesis, and in the case of increased vascular permeability of the placenta (infection, hemorrhage, injury).

  • Transfusion of blood of women without Rh compatibility

Transfusion of Rh-positive blood Rh-negative women, even many years ago, provoking the formation of antibodies antirhesus Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity  Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
 Which will continue during the Rh-conflict pregnancy.

  • The spontaneous formation of antibodies without reason.

 Rh-conflict pregnancy: important studies

Clinical manifestations of rhesus

When the maternal antibodies into the bloodstream of the fetus, they actively start to destroy red blood cells of the child. The consequences translate into hemolytic disease of fetus or newborn (in the case of penetration of antibodies in the blood of the child during birth). Hemolytic disease is divided into three basic forms (for the most severe symptoms):

  • Anemic form

The massive destruction of the red blood cells of the fetus leads to a shortage, decreased hemoglobin Hemoglobin: worse - low or high?  Hemoglobin: worse - low or high?
 That carries oxygen, thereby developing intrauterine fetal hypoxia. Oxygen starvation, in turn, slows the growth and development of the fetus. Lack of red blood cells affects the liver and spleen, which are increasing in size, trying to synthesize the red blood cells.

  • Icteric

During fetal erythrocyte destruction released hemoglobin that which passes through a series of chemical reactions resulting in the formation bilirubin Bilirubin - a great tool for the diagnosis  Bilirubin - a great tool for the diagnosis
 . Bilirubin affects the cells of the brain and spinal cord of the child, causing neurological symptoms after birth. Furthermore, bilirubin stain the skin of the child in a yellow color.

  • Edematous form

This is the most severe form of hemolytic disease. By lowering the level of protein in blood and biochemical abnormalities in cells edema Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause  Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause
   tissues. A child at birth is in serious condition, the presence of severe anemia, neurological symptoms, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders.

 Rh-conflict pregnancy: important studies

Measures against Rhesus conflict

Throughout the pregnancy, the woman should regularly donate blood for antibodies and passes ultrasound dopplerography. In the case of hemolytic disease of the fetus is assigned intrauterine blood transfusion. With the progression of the disease addressed the issue of pre-term delivery. If a woman to twenty-eight weeks of pregnancy showed no antibodies, it introduced Rh immunoglobulin, red blood cells that binds mother and inhibits the synthesis of antibodies. Repeated administration of immunoglobulin held within seventy-two hours after birth.

Anna Sozinova

Article Tags:
  • Rhesus conflict

Pariet and pregnancy - can not be combined

September 7, 2013

 pariet pregnancy
 Pariet and pregnancy - use of the drug during pregnancy and breastfeeding Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!  Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!
   It is contraindicated, as it may enter the bloodstream and together with it through the placenta to the fetus. Pariet may also be allocated to human milk. What happens if the active substance Pariet gets to the fetus?


Pariet and pregnancy - how the drug in pregnant women

Unfortunately, the answer to this question, no one can, because the clinical trials of the drug in pregnant women were not conducted. However, laboratory studies were carried out of the drug in animals (rats and rabbits). These studies did not reveal any adverse effects Pariet during pregnancy, including the fetus.

However, the same study showed that rats pariet small amounts crosses the placental barrier, and thus obtained and the fetus. How it will react to this drug is the body of the pregnant woman and the fetus is unknown.

It is unlikely that these effects will be fatal, however, the body of a pregnant woman can be quite unpredictable respond to certain drugs. Given that Pariet have side effects, the manufacturer (the international pharmaceutical concern Janssen) does not recommend using it during pregnancy.


Therapeutic effects Pariet and its spillover effects on the digestive organs

Pariet inhibits acid secretion by cells of the gastric mucosa, gastric juice so significantly and rapidly reduced. On the one hand, this effect could play a positive role during pregnancy, as one of the most common complaints of women in this state, is heartburn.

But this is only at first glance. The fact that pregnant women digestive disorders associated with the suppression of the motor activity of the intestine progesterone Progesterone - norm and pathology  Progesterone - norm and pathology
   and compression of the gastrointestinal tract growing uterus. If these violations will join another and insufficient gastric secretion, digestion will be much more difficult.

Besides the main therapeutic effect pariet and has spillover effects on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract. This effect manifests itself in the form of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation, dry mouth, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, appetite suppressants. And as a pregnant woman of the gastrointestinal tract, and so broken, all the side effects can only increase.

Risk of side effects and are of the liver - while taking Pariet may cause transient liver dysfunction, which in healthy people can be manifested only in the form of changes in laboratory parameters. But during pregnancy, liver and kidneys are working women with a double burden - need to neutralize and excrete double the amount of harmful metabolic products. Therefore, it is possible that the liver of the pregnant woman would react to the use of Pariet more strongly - how, nobody knows. Rather, these effects will be individual - most women pariet not harm, but some who have inherited some features of the structure and function of the liver, and can do much harm.


Side effects

On the central nervous system pariet can also have side effects, which manifests itself in the form of general weakness, malaise, headache, dizziness, drowsiness or insomnia. All these symptoms may be so worried and pregnant women, and Pariet only aggravate the situation.

Dangerous for pregnant women can be a side effect exerted Pariet Pariet: how to cope with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer  Pariet: how to cope with gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer
   on the organs of blood, - decrease of blood platelets and white blood cells, particularly grainy. Platelets play an important role in blood coagulation system and the reduction of their content is fraught with bleeding disorders, which is very dangerous during pregnancy. No less important role played by the white blood cells - they protect the body from infections, while reducing their number may be reduced and the immune system. And during pregnancy, and so there is a natural decline in immunity (it is necessary that the mother's body does not reject foreign tissues of the fetus). Even more reduced immunity under the influence of Pariet lead to the development of infections.

In addition, when receiving Pariet possible development of allergic reactions, the occurrence of back pain, joint and muscle pain, flu-like syndrome, weight gain, depression Depression - a little more than a bad mood  Depression - a little more than a bad mood
 , Blurred vision and taste, stomatitis, increased sweating.

Thus, despite the fact that pariet well tolerated, it should not be used during pregnancy.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • pariet