Lyme borreliosis - a disease vectors which are mites. The causative agent of the disease - the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. Particular risk of tick-borne Lyme disease in those who live or spend a lot of time outdoors, especially if the person is often walks through forests and tall grass where ticks like to live.
Signs and symptoms of tick-borne borreliosis, is usually associated with multiple systems of the body. Most often the disease affects the skin, joints, and nervous system. In borreliosis may include the following symptoms:
Rash. In just a few days or even a month before the appearance of other symptoms, the site of the tick bite appears a small red swelling. After a few days the redness spread over a larger area of skin. In some people, a rash appears in several places, a sign of the growth of bacteria in the blood.
Symptoms are similar to flu symptoms. Fever, chills, fatigue, muscle pain and headache may occur soon after the eruption.
Migratory joint pain
Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?
. If left untreated, Lyme disease can cause severe pain in the joints after a few weeks or months after infection. Very often, patients complain of pain in the knees
Living with pain in the knees: a walk to facilitate
But they may be moved to other joints.
Neurological problems. The consequences may be borne borreliosis Meningitis
Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
Temporary paralysis of one side of the face, numbness or weakness of the limbs, and the deterioration of muscle mobility.
Less common signs and symptoms. In some people, a few weeks after the infection may have heart problems such as irregular heartbeat. Furthermore, there may be eye inflammation, hepatitis
Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
When to see a doctor
Contact your doctor if you notice that you are bitten by a tick, or the appearance of symptoms. Keep in kind that the longer a tick remains attached to the skin, the greater your risk of disease.
Lyme borreliosis is transmitted to man mites - tiny brown insects, which are virtually impossible to spot on the grass.
They are attached to the master and drink his blood, is not increased by several times compared to its previous size. At the same time ticks, which are carriers of tick-borne borreliosis, transmitted it to his master. Previously infected ticks can also get Lyme disease from an infected host.
The causative bacteria borreliosis found in the saliva of the tick, and gradually penetrate into the bloodstream. Before the tick will transmit the bacteria to the owner, it must consume a certain amount of blood, so between the bite and infection can take more than 48 hours (but infection can occur, and almost immediately, so it is important to remove the tick as soon as possible in order to reduce the risk of infection). By the time the tick has time to drink so much blood that significantly increases in size, it takes enough time for infection.
More than any other tick-borne Lyme disease at risk of infection are people who are often in nature - for example, go on hikes, gather mushrooms, and so on. Ticks can not live only in the forests and meadows, but also in parks and gardens, where the grass is mowed regularly. Those who walk on the grass in a short dress, run the risk of contracting more than those who prefer long clothes, which to some extent protects against ticks.
Another risk factor is a pet. After the walk you should carefully examine their pets before the family to let them into the house.
If untreated, Lyme borreliosis can cause the following complications:
- Chronic inflammation of the joints;
- Neurological symptoms such as facial nerve palsy and neuropathy;
- Cognitive impairment such as memory problems;
- Cardiac arrhythmias.
In borreliosis many nonspecific symptoms that are common in other disorders such as viral infections, various diseases of the joints, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and even depression.
If the patient is not typical for borreliosis rash, used for the diagnosis of laboratory tests. The most reliable results they give a few weeks after infection - once in the body to develop antibodies.
Linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This test can detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, but because of the substantial probability of false positive result is not used as the sole basis for diagnosis.
Western blot test. This test is administered, if ELISA was positive.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - analysis, by which detect the presence of bacterial DNA in the fluid of the infected joints.
Oral antibiotics - is the standard treatment for the early stages of borreliosis. Adults and children older than 8 years are designated receiving doxycycline; amoxicillin or cefuroxime recommended for young children, and pregnant and lactating women. These drugs treat infection and prevent complications. It is generally recommended 14-21 day course of antibiotics, but some studies suggest that treatment courses lasting 10-14 days are equally effective.
In the later stages of the disease your doctor may recommend treatment with intravenous antibiotics for 14-28 days. During this time, manages to defeat the infection, although symptoms may persist for longer. Side effects of intravenous antibiotics may be a reduction in white blood cell count, diarrhea, and infection by bacteria resistant to antibiotics taken.