Hepatitis E - a disease that is most often spread by water failure

March 6, 2014

 Hepatitis E
 Hepatitis E - is an acute viral disease of the liver with fecal-oral mechanism of infection, mainly by water transmission, a sharp cyclical course and the frequent development of acute hepatic encephalopathy in pregnant women. A feature of hepatitis E is its similarities with hepatitis A.


How is hepatitis E

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) was opened in the early 80s. It is a non-coated virus containing a positive-pole single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA). Called them hepatitis E has many similarities with hepatitis A, including, it is transmitted from an infected person to a healthy faeces.

But if the infection with hepatitis A Hepatitis A - do not forget to wash your hands!  Hepatitis A - do not forget to wash your hands!
   sufficient ingestion of only a few infectious agents, then of hepatitis E in the body needs to get a large number of them. That is why the main source of infection is not dirty hands, unwashed fruits and vegetables (this is more typical for hepatitis A), and the hot climate and poor water supply - hepatitis E virus is mainly transmitted through contaminated water. Most often, the epidemic of hepatitis E occur in South and Southeast Asia.

There could be other ways of transmission of hepatitis E: by eating products derived from infected animals (eg, raw shellfish), transfusion of infected blood products and from a pregnant woman to the fetus.

World Health Organization (WHO) found that in the world each year, about 20 million cases of hepatitis E, more than 3 million of them are cases of acute hepatitis Acute hepatitis - always seriously  Acute hepatitis - always seriously
 . More common in people of young and middle-aged, and children. Despite the fact that hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
   E generally not heavy flows, annually registered more than 50 thousand. Patients deaths associated with the disease, as is sometimes the disease is in the form of lightning with the development of acute liver failure.


Symptoms of hepatitis E

The incubation period after the introduction into the human HEV lasts from three to eight weeks (about 5-6 weeks). The time during which the infected and the sick person is infectious, it is not known.

The disease mostly begins gradually noticeable. Often asymptomatic (including anicteric) forms of hepatitis E sick children. Initially, the patient can rise the temperature (to small numbers), which is accompanied by a general malaise, headaches, pain in the joints. These symptoms join abdominal pain Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
   (mainly in the right hypochondrium), lack of appetite, nausea and vomiting. Finally, a few days may appear jaundice of the sclera (ikterichnost), skin, dark urine and feces discolored. On examination, the doctor reveals an enlarged painful liver. This condition can last from one to two weeks. Fully infection goes away in 4-6 weeks.

But sometimes fulminant hepatitis E is for the rapid development of acute liver failure and death. Fulminant hepatitis E is often in pregnant women. General population mortality from fulminant hepatitis E is an average of 4%, and among pregnant women - up to 20% (mostly killed a woman in late pregnancy).

Previously it was thought that the hepatitis E has no chronic forms, but today found that for hepatitis E is common in people with immune deficiencies.


Diagnosis of Hepatitis E

Diagnosis of Hepatitis E is usually based on the detection of specific antibodies in the blood to the HEV. In order to detect HCV RNA carried E polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In virology laboratories performed immunoelectron microscopy.

To suggest the diagnosis of hepatitis E can be in the event that the outbreak is associated with impaired water supply, especially if the disease is most severe in pregnant women.


Treatment of hepatitis E

Treatment in most cases is performed on an outpatient basis: the patient is assigned to a gentle (or bed polupostelny) mode, and health food with the exception of products, adverse effects on the liver (diet number 5). Specific treatment of hepatitis E does not exist.

Fulminant hepatitis E, as well as treatment of the disease in pregnant women is conducted in a hospital - is usually carried out detoxification and supports liver function therapy.


Prevention of hepatitis E

Prevention of hepatitis E at the national level is far more important than cure. Outbreaks of the disease can be prevented by using high-quality public water supply and modern waste management systems.

The population for the prevention of hepatitis E must comply with the following hygiene rules:

  • wash your hands, fruits and vegetables only safe water, especially before handling food;
  • not to use drinking water of unknown origin;
  • not to eat uncooked shellfish and molluscs, prepared by people living in countries where registered frequent outbreaks of hepatitis E.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • hepatitis

Geptral - tablets to protect the liver

December 2, 2012

 Heptral pills
 Geptral - a drug that is taken for liver and biliary tract. It protects the liver from any toxic effects, promotes the excretion of toxic liver cells of bile acids and bile from the biliary tract. In addition, it has a positive effect on the central nervous system, removing depression.

 Geptral - tablets to protect the liver

Tablets geptrala - how they work

Active ingredient tablets geptrala is ademetionine - natural biologically active substances present in liver cells. Ademetionine main function is that it protects cells in the liver from any toxic effects (i.e., a hepatoprotector) helps remove one bile acids from the bile ducts and - bile.

If liver cells are injured as a result of any impact (viral infection, any intoxication, toxic stagnation of bile acids), the ademetionine contributes to their recovery (regeneration) and reproduction (proliferation). Simultaneously ademetionine suspend proliferation of connective tissue, which is the destruction of liver cells take their place, with the result that gradually formed cirrhosis with loss of function of this organ.

In addition, Heptral Geptral - protection and support to the liver and not only  Geptral - protection and support to the liver and not only
   and it is neuroprotective, ie drug, a beneficial effect on brain cells - neurons due to an improvement in their metabolic processes. This helps to activate neurons and improve the general state of the brain, resulting in the depression is removed.

 Geptral - tablets to protect the liver

Tablets geptrala the treatment of diseases of the liver and biliary tract

Tablets geptrala used in almost all diseases of the liver and biliary tract. Often, they are assigned to a long time after a short course intramuscular or intravenous administration of the drug.

For all types of hepatitis - acute, chronic, viral, toxic Heptral protects liver cells (hepatocytes) from destruction. This occurs due to the formation of biologically active substances of glutathione and taurine (ademetionine takes in this process actively involved). Glutathione and taurine protects hepatic cells against damage by toxic substances. This is particularly important in chronic liver diseases in which cells decreases the amount of glutathione.

When intrahepatic cholestasis - stagnation in the liver where they are output from the toxic bile acids, which destroy hepatocytes helps taurine, which inhibits the toxic effect of bile acids.

Heptral cope with the stagnation of bile in the biliary tract - it promotes its excretion. But in this case Heptral applies only if there is no biliary tract stones - with gallstone disease in patients receiving geptrala may become more frequent hepatic colic.

Well help geptrala pills at toxic (especially with alcohol) liver damage. Thus they reduce the toxic effects on the liver cells and inhibit the formation of alcoholic cirrhosis. When the hangover syndrome (withdrawal) when the liver suffers from toxic products of metabolism Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things  Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
 , Heptral also protects its cells, which helps to restore liver function and more rapid removal of the patient from a state of abstinence.

Take Heptral in the morning (it has an activating effect) between meals, washed down with a little water. Tablets are enteric coated, so they are free to pass through the stomach without being affected by its aggressive acidic, and dissolve only in the duodenum.

 Geptral - tablets to protect the liver

Tablets geptrala the treatment of depression

Geptral often used in psychiatric practice with resistance (dead) organism of the patient to other antidepressants, such as amitriptyline.

It activates the brain state of the patient, and outputs from the state of depression Depression - a little more than a bad mood  Depression - a little more than a bad mood
 . Do not appoint Heptral only patients with manic-depressive illness, as in this case, it can facilitate the transition of the state of depression in the manic state.

 Geptral - tablets to protect the liver

Do geptrala tablets side effects and contraindications?

Because of the side effects of pills geptrala known mainly allergic reactions, which are rare. Sometimes it can appear pain, heartburn, and abdominal discomfort, but they are usually not significant and do not require discontinuation of therapy.

Contraindications pills geptrala case of hypersensitivity to it of the patient, in the first and second trimester of pregnancy, while feeding the baby Breastfeeding - a personal choice  Breastfeeding - a personal choice
   feeding, as well as the age of 18 - the experience of the use of this drug in this group of patients there, and clinical trials in such patients have not been conducted.

Geptral - an effective and safe drug.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • Heptral