Hepatitis B virus G - the least studied pathogen

March 7, 2014

 hepatitis G virus
 Hepatitis B virus G (ji) was opened in the mid-60s of the last century, but is still not fully understood. It is found that hepatitis G virus causes a disease similar to hepatitis C. Hepatitis C - "the tender murderer"  Hepatitis C - "the tender murderer"
 And also often accompanies this disease burden for him. During viral hepatitis G can be as acute and chronic.


Viral hepatitis G: how do you get them

The causative agent of hepatitis G (HGV) is a RNA - containing virus from the group of flaviviruses. Hepatitis G virus can cause, both acute and chronic hepatitis. Currently we identified several genotypes of this virus.

HGV is widely distributed in nature and has a lot to do with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Compared with the last HGV causes less severe hepatitis and almost never cause cirrhosis and liver cancer. But at the same time can significantly heavier HGV for hepatitis C.

HGV is transmitted from an infected person to a healthy blood-borne, sexually or from an infected mother to child.

Infection can occur through blood transfusions of patients with hepatitis G, organ transplants, after a medical tool of manipulation, involving violation of the skin or mucous membranes (injection of drugs, acupuncture, treatment by a dentist, gynecologist, urologist, and so on - if not properly handling equipment), surgery and so on. Great risk of infection as in beauty salons, including tattoo parlors.

Hepatitis G is widespread among drug users who use the drug when administered to a syringe. Sometimes hepatitis G transmitted sexually - this type of infection is more common in homosexual relationships as rectal mucosa has a high vulnerability.

Intrauterine infection of the fetus from the mother are rare. To do this, the woman must move or acute hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
   G in the third trimester of pregnancy, or have frequent exacerbations of chronic hepatitis B Chronic hepatitis - a diagnosis for life  Chronic hepatitis - a diagnosis for life

During breastfeeding infection of the latter can only happen in the event of bleeding abrasions and cracks on the nipples of the mother with the simultaneous violation of the integrity of the oral mucosa of the child.


Symptoms of hepatitis G

Hepatitis caused by HGV, often takes place not heavy, and sometimes even without symptoms. Unlike hepatitis C, it is usually not transferred to cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Since getting HGV in blood before the first symptoms (incubation period) can take from two weeks to six months. The first symptoms are a general malaise, mild fever, headache, pain in muscles and joints - all of these symptoms are common to many viral infections, so a correct diagnosis in the early days of the disease is rarely possible.

But after a few days of symptoms characteristic of hepatitis: impaired appetite, pain in the right side, nausea, vomiting, dark (beer color) discolored urine and feces. At the same time the doctor fixes the enlargement of the liver and sometimes splenic. Still later there icteric staining of the sclera (ikterichnost) and skin. After the appearance of jaundice patient's condition gradually begins to improve in a few weeks, recovery occurs with complete removal of the virus detection of antibodies to it.

Sometimes, acute hepatitis Acute hepatitis - always seriously  Acute hepatitis - always seriously
   becomes chronic, the main feature of which is a constant weakness and fatigue. Sometimes the disease can worsen the appearance of symptoms characteristic of acute hepatitis.


Diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis G

The main method of diagnosis of hepatitis G is a blood analysis by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The method allows to detect viral RNA HGV. Against the background of the appearance of jaundice increases blood levels of liver enzymes (aminotransferase) and bilirubin. At the same time, asymptomatic disease often accompanied by impaired liver function, which shows the relative hepatotropic (the ability to hit the liver cells) HGV.

Treatment of hepatitis G made using interferon-alpha in combination with ribaverinom. Modern interferons to maintain a constant blood concentration of administered enough times per week. When combined HGV and HCV, when the disease is difficult to treat group of drugs added protease inhibitors (such as telaprevir). During treatment it is necessary to do blood tests every month in time to reveal the side effects of drug therapy. The course of treatment lasts from six months to a year, depending on the patient's condition.

Hepatitis G virus is considered relatively benign, the main danger of this pathogen that when combined with the hepatitis C virus, he gives a very severe disease.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • hepatitis

Dekaris - Instructions for use anthelmintic drug

January 10, 2014

 dekaris guide
 Dekaris - instructions to the drug's manufacturer, reflects only its anthelmintic properties. However, dekaris is also an immunostimulant, which some time ago was actively used for the correction of immunodeficiency states. Today, as the use of decaris immunostimulant limited.


The mechanism of action decaris

Dekaris (active substance - levamisole) produces the Hungarian pharmaceutical company Gedeon Richter in tablets of 50 and 150 mg. Excipients are corn starch, sodium saccharin, talcum, povidone, apricot flavor, magnesium stearate, sunset yellow dye.

In accordance with the instruction is dekaris anthelmintic drug. He actively affects the nervous system of roundworms (nematodes), causing paralysis of the neuromuscular system. Furthermore, blocking the action of certain enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase and fumaratdegidrogenazy), he breaks the cellular metabolism Improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting  Improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting
   nematodes. Paralyzed worms are removed from the body with feces as a result of intestinal motility within days after taking decaris Dekaris - with anthelmintic drug and immunostimulatory effects  Dekaris - with anthelmintic drug and immunostimulatory effects

As immunostimulant enhances the activity of T-lymphocytes (stimulate cell-mediated immunity) for the production of antibodies (humoral immunity) is not affected. But the immunostimulatory effect of this drug is negligible. Given the presence of a large number of side effects such as an immune stimulant used today dekaris rare.

When administered dekaris rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and into the bloodstream where it is determined by the maximum concentration two hours after ingestion. Later active substance decaris levamisole decomposed in the liver and then excreted as metabolites in the urine. In unaltered dekaris released in small amounts in the urine and feces.


Indications and contraindications for use decaris

Dekaris used to treat helminth infections caused by roundworms (nematodes): ascariasis, necatoriasis, strongyloidiasis, trihostrongiloidoza, hookworm, toxocariasis.

Dekaris contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity of the body to the components of the drug, previously develops due to medication agranulocytosis (a sharp decrease or even complete absence of granular white blood cells responsible for cell-mediated immunity), while feeding the baby Breastfeeding - a personal choice  Breastfeeding - a personal choice
   feeding. Tablets 50 mg are not indicated for children up to three years, and the tablets of 150 mg - the children of any age.

With caution and only the testimony of life dekaris used during pregnancy, as well as in severe liver and kidney diseases and disorders of hematopoiesis.

Caution should be observed during the application decaris with drugs affecting blood, with some types of anticoagulants (lowering of blood clotting) and drugs such as chloroform or ether, as its toxicity may increase.


Side effects

When a single application decaris in recommended doses side effects usually do not happen. But long-term use or use at high doses may cause headaches, dizziness, sleep disturbances Dreams: how to understand our dreams  Dreams: how to understand our dreams
 , Palpitations, cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain.

Sometimes side effects occur in the central nervous system in the form of encephalopathy approximately one month after receiving decaris. Perhaps the emergence of allergic reactions and exacerbation of chronic skin diseases (eg psoriasis).

It is also possible negative effects on hematopoietic system decaris up to agranulocytosis.

During and after taking the drug during the day can not drink alcohol: development disulfiramopodobnyh reactions in the form of facial flushing, abdominal cramping and stomach, nausea, vomiting, headache, a sharp decline in blood pressure, etc. This reaction develops due to the fact that dekaris (as well as disulfiram or teturam) inhibits the decomposition and excretion of alcohol.

Do not sit behind the wheel of a car after taking decaris as one of the side effects of this drug can be dizziness.


Is it possible to overdose decaris?

Overdosing is possible when receiving decaris adult four or more tablets of 150 mg. At the same time a person has nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, sleepiness, convulsions, confusion.

First aid in case of overdose: gastric lavage. It should also immediately call an ambulance.

Galina Romanenko

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  • dekaris