Analysis of Hepatitis really is a complete laboratory examination. Such an examination is necessary in order to ascertain the cause of the disease, as this will depend on the treatment prescribed by the doctor. And since the causes of hepatitis are many, we have to pass a lot of tests.
What tests will pass on hepatitis
Timely detection of hepatitis is very important, because it affects the results of treatment: the sooner treatment is started, the more chances to cope with the disease. In order to identify hepatitis
Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
, Its cause, activity level and the condition of the liver, the following tests:
- complete blood count and urinalysis;
- blood chemistry;
- PCR assays to detect the DNA of infectious agents;
- immunological blood test to detect antibodies to infectious agents;
- immunological blood test to detect antibodies
Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
to its own liver tissue;
- Histological study of biopsy material taken from the liver;
- Tests replacing histological examination of liver tissue.
Deciphering a blood test for hepatitis B is carried out by your doctor.
General blood test for hepatitis and urinalysis
These analyzes give an idea of the general state of the patient. Changes in the overall analysis of the blood of hepatitis are not specific, however, in different types of hepatitis can be detected following changes: decrease of hemoglobin due to increased bleeding, reduction of leukocytes (leucopenia), may indicate the presence of viral infection of the same said higher percentage lymphocyte content in the total number of leukocytes. Reducing the number of platelets and clotting disorders suggests disorders of the liver, and increased bleeding. In all types of hepatitis can be increased COE.
Urinalysis hepatitis may reveal the presence in it urobelina - gall pigment, which appears in the urine with abnormal liver function.
Biochemical analysis of blood for hepatitis
In the biochemical analysis of blood of hepatitis can be identified the following features:
- increase of liver enzymes (alanintransaminaza - ALT and aspartate aminotransferase - AST), which are released into the bloodstream in the destruction of liver cells; asymptomatic hepatitis (mainly increase of ALT), this figure may be the only sign of disease; normal ALT and AST women should not exceed 31 for men - 37 IU / L; also increases blood levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP - normal - 150 IU / l) and s glutamyl transferase (GGT);
- increased blood levels of total and direct (related) bilirubin; when the concentration of bilirubin in the serum of more than 27 - 34 mmol / l jaundice (mild form - up to 85 mol / l, mid - 86 - 169 mmol / l, severe - more than 170 micromol / l);
- violation of the ratio of the blood protein fractions: albumin decreases and increases gammaglobulins; gamma globulin fraction consists of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE), an antibody that provide the humoral immune defense against infection and foreign substances;
- elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood - major blood lipids (the rate depends on the age and sex).
A blood test for hepatitis B by PCR
Since the most common cause of hepatitis is viral infection in patients with hepatitis blood taken for detection of infectious agents using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which may be qualitative and quantitative. PCR method is highly specific, it can be used to identify the presence in the blood of even a single virus. PCR method can detect hepatitis viruses:
- A (HAV); HAV RNA is determined);
- B (HBV); surface HBsAg - comes about a month after the onset of infection and remains within two months; HBV DNA is also determined during this time; capsular antigen of hepatitis B (HBeAg) - appears after 3-15 weeks, and speaks of the acute inflammatory process in the liver;
- C (HCV); Three weeks after infection by RCR HCV RNA can be determined;
- D (HDV); RNA definition HDV;
- G (HGV); definition RNA HGV.
Immunoassays for hepatitis
With these studies can reveal antibodies to all hepatitis viruses. In addition, the detected antibodies to their own tissues of the liver - they appear in patients with autoimmune hepatitis
Autoimmune hepatitis - the immune system rejects its own liver cells
The validity of the analysis for hepatitis B
Hepatitis B - a dangerous inflammation of the liver
and C - three months.
Express - analysis of hepatitis can be carried out using special test strips. Thus blood can detect antigens B (surface antigen HBsAg) and antibodies to the virus C (HCV) in blood and saliva. Tests can be conducted at home.
Histological study of biopsy material taken from the liver
Taken by biopsy liver tissue examined under a microscope, it reveals foci of inflammation, necrosis, the degree of proliferation of connective tissue, that is, to evaluate the condition of the liver.
Since currently there are tests that replace the histological examination of liver tissue. Hepatitis test provides a measure of liver damage, the activity of the inflammatory process by specific biomarkers venous blood. FibroTest allows you to identify and quantify the stage of liver fibrosis, Aktitest quantifies the activity of the pathological process in the liver, Fibroaktitest combines the previous two tests. Fibromaks includes FibroTest, Aktitest, Steatotest (reveals the presence and degree of fatty liver) and some other tests.