Cytology is the science of the life cycle, structure, reproduction and functioning of living cells. The term cervical cytology is used to describe a diagnostic test, also known as a Pap test and a Pap smear.
During the procedure, the doctor takes a small sample of cells - scraping - from the surface of the cervix. Then it is applied to a special glass and fixed with ethyl alcohol (Pap smear) or first placed in a special solution and only then is applied to the glass (liquid cytology cervical). The latter technique is considered to be more accurate, but, in general, today it is successfully used both methods. Samples were sent to the laboratory and examined under a microscope.
What does cervical cytology
With this test can detect precancerous changes (dysplasia) and cervical cancer.
In most countries, women are encouraged to do the first time cervical cytology at age 21 or three years after first sexual intercourse.
Women aged 25 to 49 years, an analysis should be done every three years to women between 50 and 64 years of age - once in five years. Patients over 65 years of making cytology necessary, if they do not pass this test 50 or if the previous tests have shown the presence of atypical cells.
Regular carrying out of this test allows time to detect dysplasia
Dysplasia - what is it?
or cancer, and to begin treatment. Analysis of cervical cytology is widely used for more than seventy years, and during this time the number of deaths related to cervical cancer has declined significantly.
Preparing for cervical cytology
The analysis should not be performed during menstruation, because the presence of blood smears can reduce the accuracy of the test. When minor bleeding do cervical cytology possible, but still desirable.
At least one day before the visit to the gynecologist, do not use any vaginal medications, sprays, powders for intimate places and do not douche
Douching - a controversial procedure
Before the procedure, tell your doctor if you are pregnant or suspect that you may be pregnant, if you have any symptoms of urinary tract infection, such as itching, redness and swelling in the genital area, or unusual vaginal discharge
The whole truth about vaginal secretions
. Also tell if you have previously had an abnormal cytology of the cervix (if you do the analysis, for example, in another country and the doctor does not have access to its results).
Your doctor may ask you, did you used to cervical cytology, whether you use combined oral contraceptives, when you began last month and how long they lasted, did you like the ever operation in the reproductive organs.
In the process it is not necessary to come with a full bladder - it is not required, but you will feel more comfortable.
How is the procedure
To collect a sample of cervical cells the patient sits in a gynecological chair
Gynaecological chair: Take a closer look
As a conventional examination. Expander is inserted into the vagina and cervical cells collected by a special brush, spatula or a cotton swab. Usually the patient during the examination do not feel pain, but may feel some discomfort when injected extender.
The pain during the procedure usually occurs only in patients with inflammatory diseases of the vagina and / or cervix. To reduce discomfort, try to breathe deeply and stretch the muscles.
Explanation of cervical cytology
Typically, tests are ready in a few days, though in some cases the processing of samples can last more than a week. The results of cervical cytology reported by the patient and the doctor explains.
Approximately nine out of ten tests show normal results, that is, the absence of atypical cells in the smear. In such cases, the patient just suggestions reanalysis three or five years - depending on their age.
It is important to understand that if the transcript of cervical cytology showed atypical cells in the patient missing, it means that the likelihood of developing cancer in the near future is very low, but this does not mean that the risk is completely excluded. It should also be borne in mind that analysis is not completely accurate, and this is another reason that is so important to take it regularly.
Approximately 2 of 100 patients in the smear is not detected enough cells for analysis. In such cases make scraping again and again study a sample under a microscope. If similar results are obtained three consecutive times, you need a colposcopy.
In a twenty cases smears atypical cells. Bad cervical cytology does not necessarily mean that a woman has cancer; most often it is a sign of dysplasia, which in the majority of patients over time goes by without treatment. However, patients who have revealed abnormal cells, it is still necessary to pass examinations and often closely monitor their health.
- research methods of the uterus,