Pledge of good nutrition - a balanced diet, which is based on the right balance of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. Eighty-five percent of all energy the body must be obtained from fats and carbohydrates, and the remaining fifteen per cent - of the proteins.
Why proper nutrition is necessary
Proper nutrition is absolutely essential for normal growth and development, health and wellness. Proper nutrition helps to prevent many different diseases, improve quality of life, increase its duration. In addition, a balanced diet helps maintain normal body mass index - the ratio of weight and height. Body mass index is the weight (in kilograms) divided by the squared height in meters. Large figures indicate the presence of excess fat and unhealthy diet (body mass index of more than twenty-five indicates overweight), and is considered a normal body mass index of between eighteen and a half to twenty-five.
Basics of good nutrition
Nutrients that are the foundation of good nutrition
Proper nutrition - the basic precepts of healthy food
It can be divided into six main categories: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and the fluid. Naturally, the liquid itself does not contain nutrients, however, it is absolutely required for the normal their assimilation by the body. Nutrients perform several different functions - provide the body with the necessary energy to be involved in the process of digestion, promote growth and development.
Proper nutrition is largely dependent on the energy balance - the appropriate amount of energy that the body gets, splitting meals, to the amount of energy which the body needs. The excess energy body "stores" in the form of body fat, which in turn, provokes an increase in weight. On the other hand, lack of energy causes the body to compensate for a lack of energy, begins to burn stored fat - this principle is the basis of weight loss. Thus, proper nutrition helps to maintain energy balance in the norm and not consume more calories than the body needs. The average daily rate of calories for an adult male is two thousand and eight for women - eighteen hundred.
Proper nutrition and maintenance of energy balance suggest primarily adequate amounts of carbohydrates in the diet - the primary energy source of the human body. Carbohydrates are divided into monosaccharides (e.g., glucose, fructose, galactose), disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch and cellulose). During digestion carbohydrates are broken down to the simplest form of glucose
Glucose: The energy source
And only then the body can use them. From carbohydrates the body must receive not less than fifty-five percent of all energy - only for the normal operation of the brain is required not less than one hundred grams of glucose per day. In some cases the body can compensate for the decrease in the amount of carbohydrates by burning of fatty acids.
"The structural unit" of tissue, protein is essential not only for tissue repair or the formation of new tissue cells, but also for a variety of processes in the human body: a variety of proteins involved in the synthesis of molecules that perform a protective function, regulate the processes within cells. Protein - "building unit" is not only of cells and tissues, but also enzymes, antibodies, hormones. Proteins, in turn, are composed of amino acids, eight of which the body is unable to produce its own. Such amino acids are called essential - they can only receive the body with food. For adults, the recommended amount of protein in the diet is approximately three-quarters of a gram per kilogram of body weight.
The largest number of proteins found in animal products, as well as legumes and cereals. Animal products (eggs, fish, milk, meat) contain the entire set of essential amino acids, unlike the vegetable products. Excess body protein, unlike carbohydrate store can not, therefore, an absolute condition for proper nutrition is the daily protein intake. Excess protein intake, however, is not recommended because stimulates excretion of calcium in the urine, which in turn increases the risk of developing osteoporosis.
Fats and oils
Fat - a major source of energy for the human good nutrition involves the fat content in the diet is not more than thirty percent. Almost all fats, which uses a person found in foods in the form of triglycerides. Triglyceride - three fatty acid molecules attached to a glycerol molecule
Glycerine: a miracle ingredient for skin and hair
. Fatty acids may be saturated or unsaturated, depending on the number of hydrogen atoms - for example, in the chemical structure of mono-unsaturated fatty acids are missing two hydrogen atoms, polyunsaturated fatty acids - more than two hydrogen atoms. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleic and linolenic acids, the so-called omega-3 and omega-6) are considered essential - to synthesize their body can not. These acids are found in oily fish meat and fish oil, flax seed oil, nuts, sunflower oil. Especially useful for human omega-3 - they inhibit inflammation and help prevent a number of chronic heart disease and arthritis.
Saturated fatty acids increase blood cholesterol, unsaturated, on the contrary, reduced. Saturated fatty acids found in butter, meat, dairy products. "Artificial version" of saturated fat - the so-called trans fats, which also raise cholesterol levels and are considered harmful to health.
As is the case with amino acids and fatty acids, most vitamins body can not synthesize and they only come from food. All variety of vitamins are divided into two types - soluble and fat-soluble. Water-soluble vitamins (vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid) are not able to store the body, so they must be consumed daily. The fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, K) the body gets with food containing a particular amount of fat. Vitamins - a necessary condition for proper nutrition for many reasons: they are involved in the synthesis of hormones and blood cells act as "catalysts" in different biochemical reactions and prevent the development of certain diseases.
Minerals - another essential element of proper nutrition. The most important minerals for the human body are:
- Calcium is an important component of a healthy diet
Healthy eating - do not limit yourself to eating
Especially for women in menopause. Calcium is involved in the formation and maintenance of healthy bones. Calcium deficiency may lead to osteoporosis, bone fragility. In addition, calcium is involved in the clotting process.
- Iron is one of the most useful for human health minerals, iron found in red meat, some vegetables (such as spinach), eggs. Digestibility of iron depends on the diet: for example, vitamin C and animal proteins improve the digestibility of iron, and tea and coffee, on the contrary, worsen.
- Zinc: Although the human body contains only three thousandths of a percent of zinc, a mineral that is essential for protein synthesis of RNA and DNA. The main sources of zinc - meat, seafood, milk and egg yolk.