Belladonna: poisonous, but useful
May 8, 2011
Herbaceous plant belladonna (beautiful woman) got its name in the Middle Ages, when the Italians used it as a cosmetic, digging into his eyes. After that, pupils dilate, his eyes turn black, bottomless, mysterious and brilliant. We used it and as a poison. Today, this herb is used to produce drugs.
The botanical characteristics of belladonna
Belladonna, or deadly nightshade - a perennial herb of the family Solanaceae. The most common two types of plants - common and belladonna belladonna Caucasian. Both species are similar. This plant is up to two meters, which has many-headed rhizome branched with large roots. Stems thick, succulent leaves are alternate, thick brownish-green, oblong-ovate. The flowers are arranged alone, drooping, on short stalks. Pyatizubchatym calyx, a five-brown-purple blades. Fruit - bilocular, shiny, black, juicy berry-seeded size of a cherry. Seeds rounded, black, flat. Flowers in June - July, fruits ripen in August - September.
Belladonna grows common in Ukraine, Crimea, Moldova, in Western Europe. Belladonna Caucasian widespread in the Krasnodar and Stavropol territories, as well as in various regions of the Caucasus and Iran. In the tropics it grows another kind of herb, featuring yellow flowers.
As a medicinal plant grown in our country on the plantations in the Krasnodar region. In folk medicine, it is not applicable because of their toxic properties.
The chemical composition of belladonna
The current starting belladonna alkaloids tropane series, among which is the main hyoscyamine. In the process of selection of raw materials hyoscyamine partially converted to atropine. The belladonna contain also other biologically active substances: scopolamine, hyoscine and its isomer, its isomer and apoatropin belladonin other. These alkaloids are found in all parts of the plant, but most of them in the leaves and roots. As a medicinal plant used mainly leaves of belladonna. All parts of the plant are poisonous.
The action of Belladonna on the human body and its use in medicine
Belladonna drugs reduce the secretions of the sweat, lacrimal, salivary, gastric, bronchial glands, as well as the secretion of digestive secretions of the pancreas
Diabetes and pancreas - the things you need to know
. They reduce the spasm of smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, biliary tract and gallbladder.
At heart, they can affect both positively (to improve the conductivity of cardiac impulses from the atria to the ventricles of the heart) and negative (causing palpitations).
Belladonna maximizes pupils - this ability is used for examination of the fundus. But this violates the outflow of intraocular fluid and increased intraocular pressure.
Belladonna is easily poisoned. Symptoms of poisoning are burning and dryness of the mouth and throat, a violation of swallowing and pronouncing sounds, hoarseness, palpitations, pupils are dilated, the light does not react, the man badly sees up close. Increased body temperature, dyspnea, and cyanosis of the skin, pronounced swelling of the face, in the forearms and shins. Can begin to hallucinate (person sees, hears and feels what is actually there) and delusions (he correctly perceives the situation, events, behavior of others). Hallucinations are characterized by: very bright, colorful, often painted in red (rats, devils). In severe poisoning, impaired consciousness, arousal often goes into convulsions. If time does not help that person, he dies of heart failure and breathing.
The first thing to do when belladonna poisoning - is to wash out the stomach and suffered several tablets of activated charcoal
Activated carbon - old but indispensable
. Then you should call an ambulance, because without health care to cope with such poisoning is impossible.
The use in medicine of belladonna
For drugs belladonna, which can be purchased at the pharmacy are tincture of belladonna, an extract of the herb extract of belladonna thick and dry. Apply them mainly as antispasmodics for stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers, gallstones, asthma
Bronchial asthma - the body's response inadequate
, Renal colic
Renal colic: a signal that the danger in the bud
and other diseases involving smooth muscle cramps internal organs. For diagnostic purposes belladonna drugs used for instillation in the eye prior to the study of the fundus (the pupil dilates and fundus becomes easier to see).
Preparations medicines based on belladonna have a lot of contraindications, so they are contraindicated in increased intraocular pressure (glaucoma), an enlarged prostate in violation of the passage of urine, as well as serious violations of the cardiovascular system. Contraindications for such drugs is their idiosyncrasy.
During treatment with belladonna must be better not to drive or engage in other activities that require high concentration and good vision.
Belladonna - very dangerous poisonous grass and use it only in the form of medicines purchased at a pharmacy.
Calendula - medicinal herb
February 15, 2009
What calendula has healing properties, known to many. These beautiful orange flowers used in the treatment of various diseases Galen and Hippocrates. But any herbal remedy requires careful preparation and long-term regular use, only give full play to its therapeutic effect.
Calendula officinalis, or Marigold
Marigold belongs to the family Asteraceae. This annual herb with a slightly branched roots, up to 40-60 cm. Stem erect, densely covered with light green leaves egg-shaped. The orange-yellow beautiful large flowers are located at the tips of stems and lateral shoots, are collected in baskets (inflorescences). Flowers in June-August, the fruits ripen in July-September.
It is grown for medical purposes in the southern regions of European Russia, the Caucasus, and in the Moscow region. Popular with fans and flowers and as an ornamental plant found in parks and gardens throughout the country.
For medical purposes use the flowers and leaves, without lower part of the stem. Collect the whole flower baskets or some flowers. The collected materials are dried, expanding on paper in the home or outside under a canopy.
What chemicals are part of marigold
Calendula contains essential oil
Essential oils and conception: can help the roses?
, Bitter substances, volatile, saponins, mucus, a large amount of carotene, flavonoids, organic acids, traces of alkaloids. The green parts of the plant (stems, leaves) triterpinovye contains saponins, bitter tannins.
- The essential oil of calendula - is a complex mixture of aromatic nitrogen-free substances soluble in alcohol, and fatty oils. It has antibacterial, antispasmodic (relieves spasms of smooth muscles of blood vessels and internal organs), anti-inflammatory effect.
- Bitter substances increase the secretion of the glands of the gastrointestinal tract, stimulate the appetite and improve digestion, are bracing.
- Volatile - volatile organic compounds, which have a pronounced antimicrobial action.
- Saponins - plant-derived organic matter, forming like soap by shaking with water-resistant foam. Saponins calendula have anti-edematous, lowers blood pressure and soothing effect.
- Mucus have enveloping and emollient properties. Carotene is a powerful antioxidant
Antioxidants: the truth about the notorious benefits
(blocks the oxidation of lipids of cellular membranes), and an immunomodulator. It plays an essential role in the formation of skin tissues and mucous membranes.
- Flavonoids - compounds poorly soluble in water, they have a yellow color (the color - the color of flavonoids). They have the ability to remove the spasm of smooth muscles of blood vessels and internal organs. Furthermore, they are capable of altering the body's reaction to other substances, such as allergens, viruses, and carcinogens therefore possess antiviral, anticancer and anti-allergic action.
- Organic acids are actively involved in the metabolism
Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
, Enhance the action of the salivary glands increase the separation of bile and gastric juice.
How does the human body calendula
Calendula calms the nervous system, lowers blood pressure more, strengthens the heart muscle, slows the heart rate, reduces swelling. When using drugs inside calendula exert their anti-inflammatory activity, contribute to the restoration of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, the healing of ulcers and erosions.
The herb calendula is bactericidal (kills bacteria) activity against streptococci, staphylococci and other pathogens. Drugs calendula accelerate the recovery of tissues, promote faster healing of wounds and scar formation gentle.
Which diseases apply calendula
Infusion of calendula is used for neurosis, hypertension, heart pain (angina), atherosclerosis and menopause.
It is also used in the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: gastritis (inflammation of the stomach), gastric ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer, pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), colitis (inflammation of the colon), and biliary tract disease.
Apply it with stones in the kidneys and urinary tract. But the most widely Calendula is used topically for diseases of the mouth and throat, in wounds, abrasions and trophic ulcers, for douching
Douching - a controversial procedure
in gynecological practice for treatment of inflammatory eye diseases. Calendula tincture is used for the treatment of pustular skin diseases.
How to prepare medicines of calendula
From calendula prepare infusions, decoctions, tinctures, ointments. At home, you can prepare:
- Calendula tincture for internal use 2 tablespoons of herbs in 2 cups of boiling water; Take ½ cup 3-4 times a day before meals;
- Calendula tincture for external use 4 tablespoons to 2 cups of boiling water.
Calendula - one of the oldest medicinal plants, it has no contraindications except for individual intolerance.