Kidney stones: to detect and treat - why the image

April 22, 2014

  • Kidney stones: identify and treat
  • Symptoms of the disease
  • Kinds
  • Why are formed
  • Treatment

 Why are formed kidney stones

Why are formed kidney stones

Urolithiasis has been known to people for a long time and actively explored by scientists of antiquity. For example, kidney stones Ayurveda considers the consequence of a wrong way of life, because of which the current of vital energy is disrupted, and this leads to various undesirable consequences. However, despite years of research, the exact causes of kidney stones are still unclear, although some are known contributing factors.

It is believed that all people, including those who have never suffered from kidney stones, of substances contained in the urine are sometimes formed crystals. Such substances include calcium oxalate, sodium, phosphorus, uric acid Uric acid - a normal level?  Uric acid - a normal level?
 . They fall to the urine from the blood as it buds filtered, whereupon a portion of which is reabsorbed (re-enters the blood stream) and is excreted in the urine. However, besides this, normal urine contains substances that inhibit the formation of crystals too large. Such inhibitors include, for example, magnesium citrate, and pyrophosphate. In order to form a kidney stone, the concentration of substances in urine, can be formed from which crystals have become very high. The reasons may be:

  • Low volume of urine;
  • Abnormally high levels of substances that promote the formation of crystals;
  • Abnormally low concentration of substances that inhibit the formation of crystals.

As already mentioned, the exact cause of kidney stones is unknown, but it is believed that an imbalance of the components of urine can cause an unhealthy lifestyle and genetic predisposition. The probability of recurrence of kidney stones is particularly high in patients whose close relatives have suffered from kidney stones Kidney stones - why women tolerate it harder?  Kidney stones - why women tolerate it harder?
 Who have only one functioning kidney, as well as people who lead a very sedentary lifestyle - including in bedridden patients.


Diagnosis of kidney stones

Ultrasonography (US). The major advantage of this diagnostic procedure is its security - in the US the patient is not exposed to ionizing radiation, so it is often used for examination of children and pregnant women. With ultrasound you can easily find a large kidney stones, but if the stones are small or if they are bottom of the urethra, the physician who conducts research, they can not be replaced.

Computed tomography (CT). For this method of medical imaging size of kidney stones have little or no value - CT allows you to see both large small stones. However, in the course of the procedure a person is exposed to moderate doses of ionizing radiation, CT is prescribed only in cases where the doctor must decide whether there should be patient surgery and need to accurately determine the number of kidney stones, their size and location. In some cases, it may be used X-ray - it is less accurate than CT, but its implementation is cheaper and it takes less time.

In addition, for the diagnosis of urolithiasis held:

  • Urine analysis to identify factors that contribute to the formation of kidney stones, for example, elevated levels of calcium in the urine;
  • Blood tests to identify other factors that can lead to the development of kidney stones;
  • Chemical analysis of stone (if the stone came out himself, or removed during the operation). Determination of the composition of kidney stones allows you to set the type and understand the reasons for their formation;
  • Detection of hereditary diseases to identify additional risk factors: some rare genetic disorders may contribute to the development of urolithiasis.

Kidney stones: to detect and treat - signs of disease

April 22, 2014

  • Kidney stones: identify and treat
  • Symptoms of the disease
  • Kinds
  • Why are formed
  • Treatment

 symptoms of nephrolithiasis

Causes of kidney stones

Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) result metabolic disorders Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things  Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
 Which leads to a change in the chemical composition and physical condition of urine stone formation of salts and organic compounds of urine.

The incidence of kidney disease, the higher is the area south of the residence. Thus, in the Nordic countries the disease is relatively rare at the time, as in Central Asia, China and India it is quite common. Obviously, this is due to the fact that in hot climates, the body loses a lot of fluid through sweat and urine becomes more concentrated.

The chemical composition and structure of kidney stones may be different. So, in violation of the exchange of uric acid Uric acid - a normal level?  Uric acid - a normal level?
   shaped stones from uric acid (urate) in violation of the exchange of oxalic acid - oxalate, calcium-phosphorus metabolism - phosphate. Very often phosphates formed in pyelonephritis, when the urine is alkaline in nature, and quite viscous consistency. In a urine phosphate easily precipitate to form stones.


Symptoms of kidney stones

Kidney stones are for the time being can not manifest itself in any way. Signs of kidney disease begin to appear in the case when the stone squeezes blood vessel, resulting in disturbed blood supply to the kidneys, and may receive a sign of circulatory disorders kidney as high blood pressure.

Another reason for the manifestation of nephrolithiasis is a violation of patency of the urinary tract, which can manifest renal colic Renal colic: a signal that the danger in the bud  Renal colic: a signal that the danger in the bud
   - Paroxysmal severe pain during the passage of a small stone on the urinary tract or muscle spasms of the urinary tract with a large stone. Thus there is a sudden disturbance of outflow of urine from the kidney, increasing the pressure within the renal pelvis (the place where urine flows before getting into the ureter), stretching the connective tissue capsule of the kidney and squeezing the blood and lymph vessels.

Kidney stones can cause a chronic stagnation of urine, irritation of the renal tissue and attaching infections - inflammation of the kidneys (pyelonephritis). Pyelonephritis may occur as acute (the disease can not be ignored, since it runs hard, with high temperature and dull aching pain in the lower back), and chronic, often hidden. Chronic pyelonephritis in the presence of kidney stones is dangerous because it may be asymptomatic for a long time and is found in the state of neglect in violation of kidney function.

Sometimes nephrolithiasis and without infection can occur unnoticed, and the kidney function gradually decreases. Most often the disease is common in the elderly. It is more dangerous than the expressed symptoms of kidney stones in the form of renal colic, as it promotes the late detection of severe renal impairment. In this case, impairment of renal function occurs slowly and imperceptibly due to the kidney tissue volume reduction (atrophy) and accumulation of a large number of liquid (hydronephrosis kidney).


As identified and treated kidney stones

If the patient were bouts of renal colic, the comprehensive survey conducted with the use of ultrasonic techniques, x-ray and laboratory (blood and urine tests) diagnostics. There are stones that are difficult to identify in the survey process. If there is severe picture of renal colic, then perform diagnostic operations that may result in the removal of stones.

All treatments of kidney stones are divided into conservative and surgical. In most cases, treatment is complex: it begins with conservative methods, and if there is no effect, then the operation is conducted.

Conservative treatment includes nutritional therapy, drug therapy, physiotherapy, various physiotherapy, including conditions in the resort.

Nutritional care is prescribed to stop the stone formation. The examination of the patient revealed nature of the salts contained in the urine (and hence the stone formed from them), whereby the assigned diet. For example, when a large amount of oxalate in the urine Oxalate in the urine - the risk of kidney stones  Oxalate in the urine - the risk of kidney stones
   you need to avoid foods containing oxalic acid and citric acid (lettuce, spinach, sorrel, beans, gooseberries, currants, strawberries, wild rose, citrus fruits). Appointed as preparations of magnesium and vitamin B6, prevent the formation of calcium oxalate stones. The patient must drink plenty of fluids, which dilutes the urine, making it not as concentrated (less salt to precipitate).

But even with the most active conservative treatment of kidney function may deteriorate, and then occasion of operation remove the stones from the kidney or ureter.

Kidney stones may occur in different ways, but they definitely need to identify and treat.