- Kidney stones: identify and treat
- Symptoms of the disease
- Why are formed
Causes of kidney stones
Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) result metabolic disorders
Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
Which leads to a change in the chemical composition and physical condition of urine stone formation of salts and organic compounds of urine.
The incidence of kidney disease, the higher is the area south of the residence. Thus, in the Nordic countries the disease is relatively rare at the time, as in Central Asia, China and India it is quite common. Obviously, this is due to the fact that in hot climates, the body loses a lot of fluid through sweat and urine becomes more concentrated.
The chemical composition and structure of kidney stones may be different. So, in violation of the exchange of uric acid
Uric acid - a normal level?
shaped stones from uric acid (urate) in violation of the exchange of oxalic acid - oxalate, calcium-phosphorus metabolism - phosphate. Very often phosphates formed in pyelonephritis, when the urine is alkaline in nature, and quite viscous consistency. In a urine phosphate easily precipitate to form stones.
Symptoms of kidney stones
Kidney stones are for the time being can not manifest itself in any way. Signs of kidney disease begin to appear in the case when the stone squeezes blood vessel, resulting in disturbed blood supply to the kidneys, and may receive a sign of circulatory disorders kidney as high blood pressure.
Another reason for the manifestation of nephrolithiasis is a violation of patency of the urinary tract, which can manifest renal colic
Renal colic: a signal that the danger in the bud
- Paroxysmal severe pain during the passage of a small stone on the urinary tract or muscle spasms of the urinary tract with a large stone. Thus there is a sudden disturbance of outflow of urine from the kidney, increasing the pressure within the renal pelvis (the place where urine flows before getting into the ureter), stretching the connective tissue capsule of the kidney and squeezing the blood and lymph vessels.
Kidney stones can cause a chronic stagnation of urine, irritation of the renal tissue and attaching infections - inflammation of the kidneys (pyelonephritis). Pyelonephritis may occur as acute (the disease can not be ignored, since it runs hard, with high temperature and dull aching pain in the lower back), and chronic, often hidden. Chronic pyelonephritis in the presence of kidney stones is dangerous because it may be asymptomatic for a long time and is found in the state of neglect in violation of kidney function.
Sometimes nephrolithiasis and without infection can occur unnoticed, and the kidney function gradually decreases. Most often the disease is common in the elderly. It is more dangerous than the expressed symptoms of kidney stones in the form of renal colic, as it promotes the late detection of severe renal impairment. In this case, impairment of renal function occurs slowly and imperceptibly due to the kidney tissue volume reduction (atrophy) and accumulation of a large number of liquid (hydronephrosis kidney).
As identified and treated kidney stones
If the patient were bouts of renal colic, the comprehensive survey conducted with the use of ultrasonic techniques, x-ray and laboratory (blood and urine tests) diagnostics. There are stones that are difficult to identify in the survey process. If there is severe picture of renal colic, then perform diagnostic operations that may result in the removal of stones.
All treatments of kidney stones are divided into conservative and surgical. In most cases, treatment is complex: it begins with conservative methods, and if there is no effect, then the operation is conducted.
Conservative treatment includes nutritional therapy, drug therapy, physiotherapy, various physiotherapy, including conditions in the resort.
Nutritional care is prescribed to stop the stone formation. The examination of the patient revealed nature of the salts contained in the urine (and hence the stone formed from them), whereby the assigned diet. For example, when a large amount of oxalate in the urine
Oxalate in the urine - the risk of kidney stones
you need to avoid foods containing oxalic acid and citric acid (lettuce, spinach, sorrel, beans, gooseberries, currants, strawberries, wild rose, citrus fruits). Appointed as preparations of magnesium and vitamin B6, prevent the formation of calcium oxalate stones. The patient must drink plenty of fluids, which dilutes the urine, making it not as concentrated (less salt to precipitate).
But even with the most active conservative treatment of kidney function may deteriorate, and then occasion of operation remove the stones from the kidney or ureter.
Kidney stones may occur in different ways, but they definitely need to identify and treat.