- Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
- How is
How is meningitis
Is meningitis contagious? It depends on the type of meningitis and cause it to the originator. Primary almost all meningitis are contagious. The causative agent of meningitis can be transmitted in different ways. So purulent meningitis
Purulent meningitis - can be caused by different pathogens
Caused by meningococcus, is transmitted primarily by droplet infection: infection of meningitis occurs when sneezing, coughing, kissing, through infected saliva objects and so on. Starts meningococcal infection (cerebrospinal meningitis epidemic) as usual acute respiratory illness with cough and runny nose, sick mostly children under five years are possible epidemiological outbreaks in children's groups.
Serous meningitis caused by enterovirus, which can be transmitted as airborne droplets (when the disease begins with coughing and sneezing) and through dirty hands or objects that come into contact with the patient (fecal transmission). Sometimes serous meningitis
Serous meningitis - a consequence of serious infection
transmitted by swimming in pools, ponds, lakes. The outbreak of meningitis can occur in the children's collective, but rarely is reaching epidemic proportions. However, non-compliance with hygiene rules of origin enteroviral meningitis epidemic is very real.
Secondary meningitis is a complication of some other inflammatory processes (rhinogenous, otogenny, odontogenic and so on), as a rule, is not contagious.
The clinical picture of meningitis
How does meningitis? The disease Meningitis may begin and manifest itself in different ways - all depends on the type of pathogen and disease. Stages of meningitis are not clearly defined, but recovered the initial stage, the stage of development of illness and recovery, or the terminal (if the patient dies).
However, there are some common symptoms that are typical of all types of meningitis.
So, for all views meningitis is characterized by a number of signs, united under the name of meningeal (shell) syndrome. Full meningeal syndrome occurs not always even in purulent meningitis, most often manifests itself only a part of the symptoms included in this syndrome. Meningeal syndrome - the most characteristic manifestation of meningitis.
For the characteristic symptoms of meningitis: headache, vomiting, increased sensitivity (general hyperesthesia), special meningeal posture, rigidity (stiffness caused by stress) neck, symptoms Kernig, Brudzinskogo symptom hanging Lesage, zygomatic symptom spondylitis, and so on.
The incubation period of meningitis also different. If meningococcal disease he is an average of six to seven days, but can be equal to 12 hours and three weeks. The incubation period of serous meningitis caused by enterovirus infection lasts from 2 to 12 days.
As meningitis begins
How to identify meningitis? Meningitis is caused by meningococcal disease begins acutely, with fever, chills and a severe headache. Already within the first few hours expressed meningeal symptoms appear. As the island has to start serous meningitis caused by enterovirus infection - with the rise in temperature, headache, nausea and vomiting. Temperature meningitis which occurs acutely - is one of the regular features.
With lightning-fast form of meningococcal disease in the first few hours on the patient's body appears purpura. Hemorrhagic rash with meningitis
The rash of meningitis
usually appears first on the lower limbs, rapidly increases, merges and may look like bleeding expressed.
In the first hours of the disease, even the doctor can not always understand what the origin of meningitis. But it is very important to promptly hospitalized patient - it can only be a guarantee of a favorable outcome.
Repeated meningitis is rare, usually repeated diseases are associated with developmental defects of the sacrum, or the immune system.
How does meningeal syndrome
Meningitis in adults are always shown in the form of meningeal syndrome. The earliest and constant feature of meningeal syndrome is a headache. Headache with meningitis may be diffuse (spilled all over the head) or local, in some particular place - often in the neck or forehead. Headaches with meningitis associated with stimulation of sensory endings of the trigeminal nerve, and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) nerve fibers innervating the lining of the brain.
Vomiting with meningitis as a fountain, it usually starts with a headache and may last for a long time. Vomiting is not related to food intake, as it has a central origin - is developed in connection with the irritation of receptors of the vagus nerve or its nuclei located in the brain. What matters as nuclei irritation of the vomiting center located in the medulla oblongata.
Meningeal syndrome manifested as increased skin sensitivity and sensitivity to sound and light stimuli. This symptom develops due to stimulation of spinal nerves.
Patients suffering from acute meningitis
Acute meningitis - requires immediate hospitalization
Is, as a rule, in a characteristic pose: head thrown back, long torso, drawn stomach, arms pressed to his chest, his legs pulled up to her stomach. This position has received the names of poses "lyagavoy dog" or "cocked". The patient takes this position because of the tonic reflex contraction of the muscles. Characterized by stiffness in the neck with meningitis - head thrown back is a consequence of the increased tone of the extensor muscles of the neck. If you try to tilt your head to patients in the supine position, ahead there is a strong pain, but because of the rigidity of the neck muscles will not be able to get the chin chin chest.
Kernig - very early and characteristic symptom of the defeat of the meninges. It appears impossible to bend the leg at the knee joint, pre-bent at a right angle at the knee and hip joints.
Upper Brudzinskogo symptom manifests itself in involuntary flexion of the legs in the knee joints in response to the attempt to bring the head to the chest in the supine position. Lower symptom Brudzinskogo investigated simultaneously with the symptom Kernig: when you try to straighten the leg at the knee joint second leg bent at the knee and lead to stomach.
For meningeal syndrome also tend to strain the back muscles, which manifests itself in the form of a number of characteristic symptoms.
If it affects the spinal membranes (spinal meningitis or spinal meningitis) appear typical of pain along the spinal nerves (radikulitnye pain), and the propagation process on the substance of the spinal cord appear paresis (movement disorders) and dysfunction of the pelvic organs - bladder and bowel.