- Symptoms of meningitis: treat only in hospital
- Meningeal syndrome
Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges. This disease has been known for a long time and has always been very difficult. And even today, despite the fact that in the arsenal of medicine is such a powerful weapon as antibiotics, meningitis caused by meningococcal disease remains one of the most serious diseases. There are also viral meningitis, are less severe, but also difficult to treat.
Causes and types of meningitis
Meningitis can occur at any age, but most often it occurs in children. The causes of meningitis:
- bacterial (meningococcal infection, secondary meningitis caused by other pathogens when infection moves to the meninges with other bodies) - purulent meningitis;
- viral (usually enterovirus) infections, tuberculosis
Tuberculosis - a full recovery is not guaranteed
Syphilis - serous (without pus) meningitis.
Meningeal syndrome - a complex character of any type of meningitis. It is a headache, nausea, vomiting, skin sensitization, the special position of the patient, the tension (stiffness) neck and some other symptoms that suggest that the inflammatory process involved lining of the brain.
Headache meningitis always happens, it occurs due to irritation of sensitive nerve endings that are in the lining of the brain.
Nausea and vomiting are also very characteristic signs of meningeal syndrome. Vomiting is inextricably linked with a headache and did not related to meals, as there is due to irritation of the vomiting center in the central nervous system products of inflammation.
Increased skin sensitivity to touch and increased sensitivity to sound and light - it is also a consequence of irritation of the central nervous system.
The patient with meningitis usually takes a very special characteristic pose: head thrown back, the body is stretched, stomach in, the upper limbs are pressed against the chest, the lower - to the stomach. This so-called meningeal posture arises because information convulsive muscle, which in turn arises under the influence of the central nervous system.
Stiff neck is shown by the fact that as a result of the convulsive muscle tension in the nape of the patient's head throws. If you try to tilt the patient's head forward, then it sharply increased headache and increased protective neck muscle spasm, does not allow flexing.
One of the earliest signs of meningitis is the inability in knee extension legs, previously bent at a right angle at the knee and hip joints (Kernig). If you try to straighten the leg at the knee joint second leg bent at the knee and given to the abdomen (lower symptom Brudzinskogo).
Another permanent feature, part of meningeal syndrome - involuntary flexion of the legs in the knee joints when casting his chin to his chest in the supine position (upper symptom Brudzinskogo).
Symptoms of meningococcal meningitis
The disease usually begins acutely, with shaking chills, high temperature rise. Within a few hours there are signs of growing meningeal syndrome: neck stiffness, symptoms and Kernig Brudzinskogo.
Characteristically general sensitization. It appears facial flushing, restlessness. Disorders of consciousness and mental disorders often appear on the 2-4 day of illness. Possible agitation, delusions, hallucinations, or, on the contrary, lethargy, drowsiness. Often (especially in children) there jerking of muscles and general convulsions.
A number of patients as a result of edema and swelling of the brain or bleeding in the brain appears cranial nerves with loss of vision, hearing, and so on. There may be a violation of thermoregulation with a sharp decrease or, conversely, an increase in temperature.
At 3-4 days of illness often joins herpes infection: blisters on the skin and mucous membranes, which are accompanied by the deterioration of the general condition and temperature rise. In young children at this stage are often joined by pneumonia
Pneumonia - Symptoms and Causes
Meningitis can be complicated by any complications of internal organs, and necrosis (tissue necrosis meninges), inflammation of the tissue of the brain (encephalitis), and various hormonal disorders.
Serous meningitis may develop in various bacterial infectious diseases (tuberculosis, syphilis
Syphilis - punishment of Venus
and others), virus (enterovirus infection) nature, trauma or tumors of the brain or spinal cord.
Meningitis - an inflammation of the meninges
Caused by enterovirus occurs primarily in children. It begins acutely, with a high temperature rise, severe headache and repeated vomiting. All these phenomena are kept up to 10 days. Meningeal syndrome occurs 2-3 days, less pronounced than in menenigokokkovoy infection. The course of viral meningitis as more benign.
Any meningitis - a serious disease that should be treated only in a hospital.