- Strabismus - how to find the cause?
- Lesions of the eye muscles
Strabismus is a group of disorders in which the human eye can not be simultaneously focused on a single point. Other names strabismus - strabismus and strabismus.
When a person who has developed a squint, looking at an object, it is sent directly to the visual axis of one eye only. Visual axis while the other can be deflected to the right, left, up or down, due to which the irises of the eyes are located asymmetrically. Strabismus can be more or less pronounced, but it always has a negative impact on human life, not only his physical health (because of strabismus can severely affected vision), but also on the psychological well-being - unfortunately, many children and adolescents ( and sometimes adults) with this disorder often face ridicule, and have difficulties in communicating.
According to rough estimates, from strabismus suffers 2-4% of the world's population, or 130 to 260 million people worldwide.
If strabismus is not treated, the eye that the brain ignores will never see well. This loss of vision is called amblyopia. Sometimes amblyopia develops first, and causes strabismus.
Constant or intermittent strabismus?
This is one of the most important questions to which the answer is to find a physician in the diagnosis of strabismus. Permanent called strabismus types of disorders in which one eye (or both eyes, both in alternating strabismus) always mows. Non-permanent squint occurs only in certain cases, such as severe stress
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or fatigue, or during illness.
In children under six months of non-permanent squint quite often. If it persists after the first six months of life, you need to see a doctor.
Constant strabismus should start to heal as soon as possible and treatment can be aggressive - until surgery. This will maintain good vision in both eyes. When unstable strabismus brain usually gets enough stimulation from both eyes, that the person could develop and maintain the normal binocular vision. Surgery is required in such a strabismus is very rare.
In most cases, the cause of strabismus is unknown. More than half of patients with strabismus, this problem is present at birth (congenital strabismus).
Generally, the problem is to control the muscles, but not in the muscular strength.
Much less Strabismus is caused by a problem with one of the nerves or a muscle, or Graves' disease.
Other disorders associated with the development of strabismus:
- Various disorders associated with the brain and nervous system, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke
Stroke - a serious brain injury
, Cerebral palsy and Guillain-Barre syndrome;
- Diabetes (causes a disturbance, known as acquired paralytic strabismus);
- Damage to the retina in infants born before term;
- Hemangioma in infancy;
- Eye injuries;
- Tumors of the brain or eye;
- Vision loss from any eye disease or injury.
Strabismus family history is also one of the risk factors. Far-sightedness, especially in children, sometimes contributes to the development of strabismus.
Symptoms of strabismus
The most obvious symptom of strabismus - eye in different directions, that is not coordinated eye movement. Most often squinting eye is directed to the inner or outer corner of the eye, and only in rare cases, it deviates upwards or downwards. Other possible signs of strabismus - blurred vision or double vision visible objects, as well as the decrease in visual acuity. Young children often do not realize they have vision problems (especially if they have congenital strabismus). An outside observer might have noticed the child suffering from typical signs of strabismus refractive errors - for example, it can squint, looking at distant objects, or look at the pictures, keeping them away from you at a distance (if the child has already developed farsightedness). In addition, the child can often tilt the head to one side, trying to get a clearer picture.
Do not wait until the child has vision problems caused by strabismus. See your doctor as soon as you notice the baby signs of this disorder. If strabismus is not treated, it can develop such a violation, as amblyopia, or "lazy eye." This is due to the fact that the brain begins to ignore the information from the eye to the weaker eye, that eye and gradually begins to see worse. Amblyopia can be treated successfully in children aged 6-7 years, but the possible need to start treatment as early as possible, and it is better - do not allow the development of this disorder.
Diagnosis of strabismus
For the diagnosis of strabismus can use the following procedure:
- Test Hirschberg. Doctor holding a flashlight ophthalmology at arm's length from the patient's eye. If the patient is able to understand the instructions, he is asked to look into the light, but even the youngest children, as a rule, still staring at him, albeit briefly. During this test, the doctor says, where it is reflected flashlight. If the patient does not squint, it will be reflected accurately in the center of the eye, otherwise in one eye reflection is shifted to one side or another;
- Cover the test. Before the eyes of the patient keep the subject on which he must direct his gaze. Eyes - first one, then the other - completely closed for a few seconds, watching as moving the eyes remaining open, focuses on the subject.
In addition, patients with strabismus necessarily tested visual acuity.
First of all patients with strabismus, which is not well seen, prescribe glasses.
Then, as a rule, focus on the treatment of amblyopia. With the help of special glasses weaker eye are forced to work harder. If this does not work, surgery will be assigned to the eye muscles. Operation only weakens one eye muscles and strengthens the other, it does not treat amblyopia and improves vision. After surgery, the patient may need to wear glasses.
As a general rule, the younger the child, who underwent surgery, the better the result.
Adults with mild forms of strabismus, which is present only occasionally, may be enough to wear special glasses, and regularly carry out exercises for the eyes. In more severe forms of strabismus surgery is needed. If strabismus developed as a result of loss or impairment of vision, it is first necessary to correct vision, and only then to correct strabismus.
With surgery or other treatments strabismus, usually can not correct but vision problems remain. Children because of this there may be problems with studies at school, adults - with driving and performing other tasks. With early diagnosis vision usually also can improve. Approximately one-third of children with strabismus develop amblyopia. Because of the high likelihood of developing this disorder after treatment a child needs to undergo regular medical examinations.