Overvalued and delusions: impairment of consciousness

May 8, 2011

 overvalued delusions
 Overvalued ideas concept was first used in the late XIX century to designate certain views or opinions of groups, saturated and sensual wearing resistant permanent. Usually distinguish overvalued ideas observed in mentally healthy people, and pathological, is a sign of mental illness Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?  Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?
 That can go into delirium.

 Overvalued and delusions: impairment of consciousness

What is overvalued ideas

Overvalued ideas - the ideas and beliefs that are shaped by life circumstances really existed. These circumstances are understandable to others, but the problem is that the ideas in the mind caused by them, have a value that does not correspond to the real value of these ideas, it has become a major reference point in life. This person is not able to treat this critical situation and could not control himself, if affected its interests associated with overvalued ideas.

Tendency to have overvalued ideas in people with high self-esteem, self-centered, with the lack of normal social contact (eg, in the working team) especially if violated vital interest to them. Overvalued ideas are often linked with jealousy Jealousy and what to do with it  Jealousy and what to do with it
   and the infringement of any rights. In their struggle for justice, such people often become aggressive, and their actions - unpredictable, since not always correspond to the current situation.

 Overvalued and delusions: impairment of consciousness

Delusions and their types

Unlike overvalued ideas, which are formed on the basis of real-life situations, delusions - it's completely false conclusions and opinions that do not correspond to real life situations. Delusions or delusions arise in the mind of the sick person and difficult to correct from the outside. Critical thinking as a man can not, his delusions he perceives as the absolute truth. To prove the truth of his ideas the patient may resort to a fully made-up facts or to a distortion of the true facts. Actually delirium - hallucinations are the same, but as thoughts.

Delusions may be paranoid, paranoid, and paranoid paraphrenic.

 Overvalued and delusions: impairment of consciousness

Paranoid delusions and paranoid ideas

Paranoid delusions and paranoid ideas - a systematic delirium, which often occurs on the basis of overvalued ideas and some traumatic life situation of the patient, but differ from them much isolation from reality and emotionally charged statements. In fact, this two stage or two degrees of severity of the same process.

Such people are prone to delirium suspicious, vengeful vindictive prone to fanaticism. At the same time they are not usually found violations of intelligence and memory. These patients are able to last to defend their ideas and come up with all sorts of evidence in their defense. Paranoid delusions concrete (associated with a specific situation) and can succumb to therapy (correction) or take your own, if psychotraumatic situation permitted.

Paranoid delirium is difficult to correct, it can last for years. Very often such nonsense occurs against a background of family relations (paranoid delusions of jealousy), and the relationship in any group. Alleged enemies of the patient are in trouble, as he begins to purposefully pursue and take revenge for what they have no idea. Often the patient is united around such a group of people infected his conviction, and a lot of emotion presented in the defense of the idea of ​​"facts." Such association promotes that patients with paranoid delusions Brad - not only crazy  Brad - not only crazy
   usually do not lose the skills and intelligence. And yet, time puts everything in its place, it becomes visible to the absurdity of paranoid ideas and the patient is left alone.

 Overvalued and delusions: impairment of consciousness

Delusional paranoid ideas

Paranoid ideas can be divided into two groups, aimed at the world and towards themselves.

For ideas, aimed at the world include:

  • interpretative nonsense - actually existing facts are interpreted in terms of delirium;
  • nonsense attitude - what is happening to patients assessed as having a special relationship to it;
  • delusions of persecution, jealousy, poisoning, loss;
  • delirium any physical (eg, invisible rays), telepathic or hypnotic influence;
  • nonsense staging - everything rigged;
  • nonsense of reincarnation of other people;
  • delirium positive or negative counterpart - the assertion that strangers or his relatives, on the contrary, his family - unfamiliar people;
  • nihilistic nonsense - everything was lost.

By paranoid ideas aimed at themselves include:

  • delusions of grandeur, wealth, acquaintance with famous people;
  • delusions of invention;
  • reformist nonsense, such as the transformation of society;
  • delirium imagined physical defect;
  • delusions transformation into an animal or a universe in its own body of an animal or another person, control the thoughts and actions of the patient;
  • reducing body or its parts;
  • the presence of severe disease and suffering;
  • inferiority of the self, of sin.

Systematized paranoid delusions, usually occurs in conjunction with hallucinations and other mental disorders, with different combinations of hallucinations and delusions give different versions of a mental illness.

There is paraphrenic nonsense - nonsense systematic fantastic content combined with hallucinations and other mental disorders.

Brad - is the most common symptom of mental disorders, which is observed in the majority of mental disorders.

Galina Romanenko

Treatment of alcoholism: the main thing - support for loved ones

December 27, 2013

 Treatment of Alcoholism
 The probability of recovery of people suffering from alcoholism, with a good general state of health, social support and high motivation is quite high. One year after treatment began alcoholism approximately 50-60% of patients can abstain from alcohol, and most of them continue to maintain a sober lifestyle permanently.

Weak motivation, lack of support from the people around them, as well as mental disorders are the cause of most failures that would normally occur in a couple of years after starting treatment. The success of the treatment of alcoholism is defined by a long period of abstinence, reduction in alcohol intake, improving health and quality of social interaction.


How to treat alcoholism

Alcoholism treatment can be started only when the alcoholic recognizes the existence of the problem and agrees to give up alcohol. He or she needs to understand that alcoholism is curable with treatment and quality of life can be greatly improved. A high level of motivation is one of the most important conditions for the successful treatment of alcoholism. Usually alcohol is treated in three stages:

  • Detoxification is carried out immediately after a person refuses to alcohol. At this stage of alcohol withdrawal syndrome can have serious consequences, among them - seizures, hallucinations, delirium tremens Blue Devils - alcohol starts and wins  Blue Devils - alcohol starts and wins
  • Rehabilitation. The patient takes advice and take medication, gradually acquiring the ability to lead a sober life. Rehabilitation can be carried inpatient and outpatient - its effectiveness from this usually does not.
  • Securing the results. At this stage, a person must learn to keep sobriety only by their own motivation. Of key importance here is the support that can be obtained, for example, in a group of Alcoholics Anonymous.

Since detoxification is not in itself eliminate the craving for alcohol, in the early stages refrain from alcohol it is particularly difficult. If treatment is started at an early stage of alcoholism, withdrawal symptoms usually causes relatively mild symptoms, such as anxiety and sleep problems. However, if the person for a long time suffered from alcoholism, non-alcoholic beverages can lead to tremors, convulsions, anxiety attacks, and hallucinations. If the treatment of such patients is not an expert, there is a risk of death due to alcohol withdrawal. Therefore, detoxification for people with advanced stages of alcoholism should be treated by a doctor; In many cases this requires a short hospital stay.

During patient treatment for alcoholism can be assigned to one or more drugs. Benzodiazepines - drugs used to alleviate withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety and sleep disorders Dreams: how to understand our dreams  Dreams: how to understand our dreams
 . They may also prevent seizures and delirium. These drugs are often used at step detoxification, after which they gradually reduced the dose, and then completely stopped benzodiazepines. Their use requires extreme caution, as they may cause dependence.

There are several medications that are used to help people refrain from drinking alcohol in the early stages of treatment. One of these drugs - disulfiram; it begin to take after the detoxification phase. It interacts with alcohol so that the use of even small amounts of alcohol can cause nausea, vomiting, blurred visible objects, confusion and difficulty breathing. This medication is suitable for people with a strong motivation, as well as for those who are under the supervision of specialists.

Another medication - naltrexone reduces the craving for alcohol. You can start to accept even those who still continues to drink, but it is best to use this medicine on the second stage of treatment. It is now possible to do an injection of naltrexone, which operate within a month. Acamprosate - another drug that does the craving for alcohol is much less pronounced.

Experts believe that in the treatment of alcoholism may be useful antiepileptic drugs topiramate and gabapentin. They weaken the craving for alcohol and eliminate anxiety, though none of these drugs does not have official permission for use in the treatment of alcoholism.

Antidepressants may be used if the patient suffers from anxiety Anxiety - how to distinguish normal from disease?  Anxiety - how to distinguish normal from disease?
   and depression Depression - a little more than a bad mood  Depression - a little more than a bad mood
 . Since the characteristic of these disorders symptoms may disappear, along with other signs of withdrawal symptoms, antidepressants are not usually prescribed before a person can quite a long time without alcohol.

In addition, in order to achieve stable results using psychological counseling, family therapy, group psychotherapy.


Nutrition and treatment of alcoholism

Alcoholics often suffer from a lack of various nutrients. Since only 30 grams of most alcoholic beverages contain more than 200 calories, the consumption of large doses of alcohol the body's need for food is reduced - calorie him enough, and the lack of vitamins and minerals makes itself felt at once. Very often alcoholics lacks vitamins A and C, B vitamins, magnesium, selenium and zinc, and essential fatty acids. For this reason, a multivitamin intake and a balanced diet are essential elements of the plan of treatment for alcoholism.


Additional recommendations

To learn to live without alcohol, patients are advised to:

  • Avoid companies and places where alcohol is the norm. Find new friends, leading a sober lifestyle;
  • Inform your family and friends that you are being treated for alcoholism, and ask for their support;
  • Replace the habit of drinking alcohol new habits - for example, to find a new hobby, do volunteer work, and so on.

Article Tags:
  • alcoholism