Ketorol ampoules: to help with severe pain
November 21 2011
Ketorol - is an effective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, which has a strong analgesic effect. This allows you to apply for the relief expressed ketorol pain. In such cases, the drug is used as a solution which is produced in ampoules.
Action ketorol ampoules
Ketorol (ketorolac) produced in ampoules for intramuscular or intravenous administration. Ketorol has the strongest analgesic effect among all NSAIDs - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Expressed it had also anti-inflammatory. Antipyretic effect from ketorol also there, but less pronounced.
The effect of intramuscular or intravenous administration ketorol comparable with the introduction of narcotic pain medication, so it is used for severe pain resulting from injuries, heavy operations for cancer.
Use ketorol not be long, since it gives significant side effects, concerning for intramuscular and intravenous administration of the drug, there are many contraindications.
In what cases will the introduction ketorol ampoules
Ketorol in capsules is indicated for severe pain caused by:
- serious injuries;
- state after severe surgical, gynecological, urological, orthopedic and other operations;
- dental surgery, and manipulation;
- renal and hepatic colic - together with antispasmodics;
- any other intense pain.
Dosing and Administration
Ketorol ampoules for intramuscular and intravenous administration is recommended to appoint or one-time, or within a maximum of five days, as at a long reception increases the risk of side effects. Dose ketorol chosen individually and depends on the intensity of pain, the severity of the underlying disease and related illnesses. Elderly patients with impaired liver function and kidney ketorol administered at a lower dose. With a very strong pain in order to avoid side effects from high doses of ketorol, it is prescribed in combination with narcotic painkillers.
Intravenous ketorol introduced slowly im - deep into the muscle, and also slow. The analgesic effect occurs within half an hour and lasts for about 4 - 6 hours.
When administration is contraindicated ketorol
Contraindications for intramuscular and intravenous ketorol are:
- erosive and ulcerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation of the stomach wall or bowel;
- expressed by the human kidney and liver;
- dehydration and a decrease in blood volume;
- Hypersensitivity to ketorol or other NSAIDs, allergic reactions to aspirin (eg, aspirin asthma);
- anesthesia before and during surgery, when possible bleeding - ketorol helps reduce clotting ability of the blood;
- hemorrhagic (rupture of a blood vessel), stroke;
- any diseases that are accompanied by a decrease of blood clotting;
- simultaneous reception of any other NSAID;
- age up to 16 years;
- pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
Side effects in ampules ketorol
Ketorol administered intravenously or intramuscularly quickly gets into the tissues and has a more pronounced effect. Therefore, the side effects of its use is greater than that of the pills.
With the introduction of disposable ketorol of the side effects are manifested mainly allergic reactions. But the duration of the preparation and the higher the dose, the greater the adverse effect arises:
- the part of the digestive system - stomach pain
Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
, Stomach bleeding, perforation of the wall of the stomach, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abnormal liver function;
- from the blood - decrease in the number of white blood cells at elevated levels of eosinophils, a reduction (sometimes significant) number of platelets;
- the central nervous system - anxiety, irritability
Irritability - you try to control my temper
, Agitation, insomnia, headache, rarely - hallucinations and confusion;
- by the kidneys and urinary tract - the pain in his side and in the back, blood and urine protein
The protein in the urine - a sign of danger, which should not be underestimated
A sharp decline in renal function, urinary frequency or urinary retention, inflammation of the kidneys;
- on the part of the cardiovascular system - rare or, on the contrary, frequent heart rate (bradycardia or tachycardia), increased blood pressure, heart pain
Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor
Ketorol - an effective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and for parenteral administration, its effect is greatly enhanced, but amplified and side effects. Therefore assign ketorol ampoules may only doctor.
Artropaticheskom - one of the most severe forms of the disease
January 2, 2014
Artropaticheskom - this is one of the most severe forms of psoriasis that affects the joints. When launched untimely or inadequate treatment of the disease can lead to permanent disability. But the pain of articular psoriasis does not always happen. This form of psoriasis are ill more often than men.
The main symptoms
Arthropathic psoriasis (psoriatic arthritis) occurs more frequently in patients who already have skin manifestations. Articular psoriasis develops on average six years after onset. But there are cases when the joint damage began before the appearance of rashes on the skin or in conjunction with them.
This form of the disease occurs more frequently in men than in women. Artropaticheskom runs a chronic, worsening replaced by remissions (usually unstable). The main peak of exacerbations accounts for the cold season (winter psoriasis). Summer artropaticheskom form is much rarer.
The main features of artropaticheskom
The disease is very similar to rheumatoid arthritis
Arthritis - a variety of forms and complications
. However, there are also features:
- mainly affects the interphalangeal joints of the fingers and nails; the skin over the affected joint becomes red; on one finger often affects several joints, it is like a sausage;
- except interphalangeal affects several joints at the same time the process is asymmetrical in nature; Sometimes psoriatic arthritis
Psoriatic arthritis - be attentive to his hands
- many patients with psoriasis inflammatory process extends to the big toe; Many patients complain of pain in the heel;
- in the process may involve the joints and intervertebral lumbar and sacroiliac joints, which leads to ankylosis (immobility) of the spine; This process is very similar to ankylosing spondylitis - rheumatoid lesion of the spine;
- During articular psoriasis undulating: severe exacerbation alternate with partial remissions; often worsening articular process combined with a skin rash; Over time, such a flow is greatly reduced range of motion in the affected joints; Sometimes artropaticheskom goes unnoticed and is detected with a substantial violation of the joints.
Significant violations of the joints accompanied by severe pain.
Artropaticheskom very easy to identify if joint damage combined with skin eruptions. But if there is no rash, the disease may well be confused with other types of arthritis. For example, X-ray examination revealed violations are typical for rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis - debunking myths about the disease
The inflammatory process is confirmed by the general analysis of blood (increased white blood cell count, accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate), but rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis - permanent debilitating joint pain
in the blood are the same changes. The difference may be specifically skrinningovye tests that reveal rheumatoid arthritis (latex test and the response Vaaler Rosa) that psoriatic artriyate negative.
Treatment artropaticheskom during an exacerbation - it is the removal of inflammation, swelling and pain. Out of aggravation trying to restore the function of changes in the joints.
To reduce inflammation and pain, some pain medications will not be enough, although during the exacerbation of their well appointed, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and means, relieves muscle tension (mirelaksanty eg Mydocalmum). When the severity of inflammation and severe pain prescribed glucocorticoid hormones. NSAIDs and glucocorticoid hormones injected in the cavity sustavaov.
But to reduce inflammation is also required to suppress the autoimmune process - for this purpose appointed immunomodulators different groups, suppressing or immune process as a whole (metatreksat, cyclosporine), or modern immunomodulators selective action, which act directly on the broken chain immunity (efalizumab, infliximab, and others) .
Used to treat psoriasis and artrpaticheskogo retinoids (synthetic vitamin A derivatives) such as atsetritin. The mechanism of action of retinoids is not known exactly, but found that they inhibit cell proliferation (increased division) of the epidermal cells, regulate the process of keratinization, which is broken for psoriasis, have immunomodulatory effects on cells of the middle layer of the skin and stabilize the membrane structure of the cells.
Fully cured artropaticheskom impossible, but if properly selected patient treatment could be a long time in good condition with no loss of joint function.