Hygroma brain - a dangerous accumulation of fluid
June 15, 2014
Brain (and spinal cord) cover three membranes. Between dura formed from connective tissue and arachnoid membrane, which is composed of the same tissue, but has a lower density and a different structure is the subdural space, which under certain circumstances can be formed hygroma brain.
Causes of brain hygroma
Currently, the main reason for the formation of subdural hygroma in space is considered traumatic brain injury. Injuries do not have to be strong; even at a relatively weak impacts on the head there is a possibility of discontinuity cavities, which contains cerebrospinal fluid. If this occurs, it may be formed subdural hygroma, which unlike hematoma brain contains much more cerebrospinal fluid than blood (although the small amount of blood there may still be contained). Hygroma brain contains, on average, 100 ml of fluid, but sometimes the amount of its contents can be up to a quarter of a liter.
Symptoms of cerebral hygroma
Often, patients with this type of hygroma there are various signs of head trauma - like abrasions or open wounds on the head, and intracranial hematoma. In general, the symptoms depend on the hygroma. So, a small subdural hygroma
Hygroma when liquid in unnecessary places
may not cause any symptoms, but if the tumor is large and has a strong pressure on the brain, there may be the following signs:
- Loss of consciousness;
- Speech problems - for example, a patient can be hard to remember or pronounce words.
In addition, some people with large cerebral hygroma marked changes in behavior - for example, they can behave overly aggressive, they can dramatically and for no apparent reason to change the mood, and so on. In some cases, possible loss of vision. All of this suggests that large hygroma pressure leads to violation of certain brain centers. If, after even minor trauma you experience any of these symptoms, contact your doctor immediately. Remember that any head injury is potentially dangerous to your health.
If you suspect a hygroma brain doctor may prescribe echoencephalography, computed tomography and / or magnetic resonance imaging. These procedures can detect tumors in the subdural membrane, assess their size, as well as to decide what treatment the patient is required.
If subdural hygroma is low, the doctor may be limited to the observation of the patient
. However, if it is a great burden on the brain causes headaches and changes in behavior, require surgery
. The operation, which is prescribed in such cases is called a craniotomy or craniotomy
. The neurosurgeon makes a small hole in the skull to access Hygroma
. Then its contents was removed through a special thin tube made of flexible material
. In some cases, craniotomy is performed under local anesthesia, but today the most commonly used general anesthesia
. For several days after surgery, the patient remains in the hospital
. At this time, the hole made by the surgeon, remain tubes through which output fluid residues contained in giggrome
. Studies have shown that due to this significantly reduces the risk of complications associated with craniotomy
. Most patients are discharged, on average, 5-7 days
In rare cases, craniotomy leads to complications such as postoperative infection and severe bleeding. Sometimes, in spite of the treatment patients are still some of the symptoms that have been observed before surgery, for example, speech disorders or sudden, unexplainable mood swings
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After surgery there is a small probability of the formation of new subdural hygromas; in some patients, relapses occur more than once. The probability of developing serious complications tends to increase. Fortunately, in most cases, the prognosis for patients who have removed hygroma brain is very favorable - some time after treatment, they can once again live a normal life without any restrictions.
Spur on the heel: the cure arisen trouble
December 2, 2014
- Spur on the heel: the cure arisen trouble
- Methods of disposal
It is estimated that at least 10% of people in a particular age formed a spur on the heel; than to treat this disorder depends on several factors. In most cases, fortunately, is quite conservative treatment, and only some patients required surgery.
Spur on the heel - it is a solid build-up, which is one of the symptoms of plantar fasciitis. However, the terms "spur on the heel," and "plantar fasciitis" is often used interchangeably. In any case, to get rid of heel spurs
How to get rid of heel spurs - conservative and operative treatment
It is necessary to treat plantar fasciitis.
Approximately 90% of heel spurs can be cured without surgery. There are the basic means of treatment of spurs and plantar fasciitis.
This is one of the most effective and simple anti-heel spurs and caused them pain in the legs
Pain in the legs - from which they arise?
. Very often it is used by athletes, such as heel spur is a very common problem. Ice can be used for heel spurs in several ways:
- You can do massage, which are used for pieces of ice. Prepare ice in special molds, or in a small cardboard or plastic beaker. Within five or ten minutes massage the heel piece of ice. Take a massage after a day during which you have spent a lot of time on their feet after a hike or intense workout.
- Baths ice - also a very effective remedy for heel spurs, they help relieve pain and reduce inflammation. Pour into a bowl a little water, put back the ice and keep your feet in the water for ten or fifteen minutes. Do not pour too much water - it should cover the soles of the feet and heels, but not the whole foot. Avoid most of the time to keep your toes over the water - it will help to avoid hypothermia.
- Finally, you can make simple ice packs. Put crushed ice in a plastic bag, wrap it in a towel, and attach to the heel, which formed a spur for fifteen to twenty minutes. It is best to use crushed ice instead of cubes, because due to the fine particles of ice increases the contact surface.
Correct sequence of physical activity and recreation
Recreation plays an important role in the treatment of heel spurs, as it reduces the strain on the plantar fascia injury that often leads to the development of this disorder. This does not mean that the patient should try to reduce the burden to a minimum; he should only get enough rest and possibly restrict the execution of the exercise, which causes the most severe pain in heel spurs. Only in very severe pain may require immobilization - in such cases, patients are tires or brace to fix the leg in position. According to one survey, about 25% of patients believe that the modification of the exercise, including a complete rest is the most effective treatment of heel spurs.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Patients who develop heel spurs are often advised to take certain anti-inflammatory drugs. The first drug of this type, which are administered to a patient are typically NSAIDs. Although many experts have doubts that they can contribute to the healing of damaged tissue, these drugs help control the symptoms of plantar fasciitis, and effectively used for the treatment of heel spurs in combination with other agents.
In one study, 79% of patients who have had heel spurs, successfully used in the treatment of certain NSAIDs. To therapy give good results, the patient must take the medication every day through approximately equal intervals then until by other methods fail to eliminate the cause of the pain. It should be noted that taking NSAIDs for a long time can lead to stomach pain
Pain in the stomach when the body asks for help
, Kidney problems and other side effects. Elderly patients prescribed NSAIDs with caution, as they increased the risk of serious side effects. Pregnant women who have formed heel spurs, long-term treatment with the use of NSAIDs is not assigned.
To relieve the symptoms of heel spurs can be assigned to oral corticosteroids, or injection of these drugs. Corticosteroids for oral administration are usually prescribed to relieve severe pain, together with NSAIDs, or instead of them. The injections may be needed if other methods do not help relieve the symptoms of heel spurs. To alleviate the discomfort, corticosteroids (e.g., methylprednisolone) are usually used in conjunction with local analgesics (lidocaine, or others).
Corticosteroids bring relief, at least 70% of cases. Injection preparations of this type of relief of symptoms in the heel spur, on average, four to eight weeks. Since they can not do more than three times a year, and sometimes fasciitis symptoms reappear after the action stops drugs, corticosteroid injections may not always be quite effective for patients with heel spurs, in the long run.
Studies have shown that injections are particularly effective that the doctor does, guided by the image obtained by ultrasound. After injection of the likelihood that the patient has resumed a strong pain in the heel, much lower than when the drug is administered, guided only by the information obtained by palpation.
Among the risks associated with corticosteroid - atrophy of the skin and / or other soft tissues, skin hypopigmentation, infection, bleeding. Approximately 2% of patients after the start of treatment the pain increases and it disappears a few days later.
Side effects of injections of corticosteroids may be: break of the plantar fascia (observed in approximately 10% of patients), atrophy of the fat beneath the heel bone. Patients who do multiple injections, the likelihood of rupture of the plantar fascia increases.
Atrophy of fat tissue usually occurs only in those cases where an injection has been made correctly. This complication may result in severe pain and reduced activity level of the patient.
Severe bleeding is possible only in patients with diseases that affect blood clotting, as well as in those taking anticoagulants. Infection - this is a rare complication, but it is possible, if the doctor for any reason, using non-sterile instruments.