Paracetamol - is effective for moderate pain - Mechanism of Action

March 4, 2010

  • Paracetamol - is effective for moderate pain
  • Mechanism of action

 mechanism of action of paracetamol
 The mechanism of action of paracetamol

Paracetamol - is a synthetic drug that belongs to the non-narcotic pain relievers. Its mechanism of action is associated with inhibition of the formation of the body of prostaglandins - biologically active substances that have a multifaceted effect on the body.

Reducing the amount of prostaglandins in the blood causes antipyretic and analgesic activity. Antipyretic effect of paracetamol due to the fact that it inhibits the excitation of prostaglandins thermoregulatory center, which is located in the hypothalamus - part of the brain that regulates the work of many systems. By reducing the amount of prostaglandin is reduced and the temperature. The analgesic effect of paracetamol is associated with a reduction in the action of prostaglandins on the sensitivity of nerve cells to mechanical and chemical irritants. Anti-inflammatory effect of paracetamol is weak, almost no expression.

It is proved that paracetamol is more active in childhood, while providing fewer side effects. This happens because the collapse of paracetamol in the body of an adult and a child occurs in different ways: children under the age of 12 years due to a lack of maturity of some enzymes at the same time there is no formation of toxic products of metabolism, while in adults they are formed, and adverse effect on the liver. For this reason, acetaminophen is found in many children antipyretics.

Various firms drug is available in tablets (including instant), capsules, oral solution, powders (including suspension), rectal suppositories, solutions for injection, in the form of a syrup under the names: Panadol, Panadol solyubl, Panadol Junior , efferaglan, kalpol and others.

Paracetamol is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, while the maximum plasma concentration is reached within an hour. Drug absorption occurs predominantly in the small intestine. The rate of absorption of the drug can be slowed down while receiving drugs that reduce gastric acidity and adsorbents (agents deposited on their surface a variety of substances, such as activated carbon).


Indications and contraindications for use

The use of paracetamol is shown:

  • for moderate pain of different origin: headache (including migraine), toothache, pain spreading along the nerve (neuralgia), pain in muscles and joints, pain during menstruation, pain in trauma, burns;
  • at a high temperature (fever) associated with infectious and inflammatory diseases in children and adults.

Paracetamol is contraindicated:

  • when expressed violations of the liver or kidneys;
  • in congenital deficiency of the enzyme glkzhozo-6-phosphate dehydrogenase;
  • blood diseases;
  • in case of hypersensitivity to the drug;
  • Pregnancy and breast-feeding Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!  Breast-feeding: feed - and no nails!
  • elderly patients.

When concomitant administration of paracetamol certain medications (some sleeping pills, anti-epileptic drugs, antibiotic Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?  Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?
   rifampicin) or alcohol significantly increases the risk of toxic effects on the liver.


Side effects that may occur in the treatment with paracetamol

Upon receipt of paracetamol following possible side effects:

  • from the gastrointestinal tract: nausea, abdominal pain Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
 ; long-term use in high doses may liver toxicity to the change of its function;
  • allergic reactions such as skin rash (including urticaria), itching, swelling Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause  Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause
  • with a side of blood: anemia (anemia), a decrease in the number of platelets (thrombocytopenia - is fraught with bleeding), increased blood levels of methemoglobin - a derivative of hemoglobin that is unable to carry oxygen;
  • by the kidneys - nephrotoxic (kidney damaging tissue) effects with prolonged use at high doses.

In case of overdose of paracetamol is necessary to gastric lavage and immediately call an ambulance as to neutralize the action of paracetamol is necessary to introduce specific antidote - N-acetylcysteine. Timely administration of N-acetylcysteine ​​preserves liver function, and therefore the patient's life.

Paracetamol - an indispensable tool at high temperature and pains of various origins.

Article Tags:
  • paracetamol

Citramon P - why is it so effective? - Citramon and pressure

May 13, 2010

  • Citramon P - why is it so effective?
  • About medicine
  • Contraindications
  • Citramon breastfeeding
  • Citramon and pressure
  • Indications

Citramon and pressure

When uncontrolled reception tsitramon can play with a man bad joke. For example, it may well remove headache, but at some point Headache may be related to high blood pressure and in this case the receiving tsitramona effects can be unpredictable.

 Citramon and pressure | Citramon P - why is it so effective?

Citramon - combined preparation of a headache

The structure of the combined preparation tsitramona include aspirin, caffeine and paracetamol. All of these drugs have different mechanisms of action, but the feature is that they reinforce each other's effect. For example, aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that inhibits the action of substances that cause inflammation and pain - prostaglandins. At the same time the first aspirin NSAIDs many side effects, the most dangerous of which are irritating to the stomach and the ability to enhance the bleeding.

With the action of aspirin is well combined effects of caffeine, which enhances the analgesic effect of the latter.

Caffeine on blood vessels will act as follows: the vessels in skeletal muscle, heart and kidney dilate vessels with the abdominal organs (except kidney) and brain narrowed.

Last preparation is part of the tsitramona - paracetamol. It also has analgesic properties and enhances the action of the first two drugs. Negative properties of paracetamol is that it has hepatotoxic effects, ie kills liver cells, which is why tsitramon not take the time.

 Citramon and pressure | Citramon P - why is it so effective?

Can I take tsitramon high blood pressure

If blood pressure is only slightly elevated, then tsitramon will not have a material impact on him, as its constituent part caffeine expands and partially constricts blood vessels. The ability of caffeine narrows blood vessels of the brain used in the treatment of migraine I have a migraine. What to do?  I have a migraine. What to do?
   - A disease in which blood vessels of the brain suddenly increasing dramatically, which causes episodes of severe headache.

It is dangerous to take tsitramon at very high blood pressure (BP). In this case, its effect can cause a number of complications. For example, to increase the spasm of blood vessels of the brain, which can lead to a violation of cerebral circulation, and even ischemic stroke Stroke - a serious brain injury  Stroke - a serious brain injury
   - Death of brain cells due to the breach of their power.

The narrowing of the blood vessels of the brain with high blood pressure may be the cause of hemorrhagic stroke and, when under the pressure of the blood blood vessel bursts and blood enters the brain tissue, destroying it. In this matter, and how often the patient takes tsitramon, because apart from the caffeine it contains aspirin, which is under the influence of reduced clotting ability of blood. If the clotting ability of the blood is reduced, then the bleeding from the damaged vessel will be long and heavier stroke.

The problem is that high blood pressure is sometimes not manifested, so before taking tsitramona need to measure it.

If a person periodically rises high blood pressure, it is best to have a home device to measure it and record the blood pressure regularly.

It is necessary to know how much pressure is normal for the patient - in hypertensive patients with normal blood pressure does not always correspond to the physiological norm, it can be significantly increased. But this is not necessary to reduce the pressure - it's also very dangerous, just need to know the indicators of relative standards and avoid exceeding them. A significant excess of such indicators may be of minor reasons, including by receiving tsitramona. So take tsitramon people with severe hypertension is contraindicated.

But if the patient is not hypertensive crises and high blood pressure is stable, with a rise in blood pressure and severe headache tablet tsitramona can take.

 Citramon and pressure | Citramon P - why is it so effective?

Systematic reception tsitramona high blood pressure

Some elderly people take tsitramon almost daily, removing this way the headache. AD before this, as a rule, is not measured. Do it in any case impossible, as tsitramon has a lot of side effects. Especially hard tsitramona regular intake may affect the condition of the liver. Also suffer gastrointestinal tract (abdominal pain, heartburn, sometimes even stomach bleeding), there may be persistent dizziness Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet  Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
 , Headache, blurred vision, tinnitus (up to complete deafness), reduced clotting ability of blood, nosebleeds, bleeding gums How to prevent bleeding gums: important rules  How to prevent bleeding gums: important rules
 , Severe kidney damage.