Paracetamol - is effective for moderate pain

March 4, 2010

  • Paracetamol - is effective for moderate pain
  • Mechanism of action

 Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen, is used as an analgesic drug for more than 30 years and is considered a very effective means to relieve pain and fever in both children and adults. This is a very safe drug that does not cause stomach irritation.


History of discovery

In 1893, it opened the white matter, which has no odor and bitter taste, which became known as paracetamol. It was found in the urine of patients taking phenacetin. Then, this discovery did not attract much attention in the medical community. In 1948 it was found that paracetamol is a metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide. A significant part of phenacetin received patients processed by the liver to paracetamol and to achieve analgesia, phenacetin was required to take in much larger doses than paracetamol.

Tablets containing 500 mg of paracetamol went on sale in 1956 and quickly became a popular non-prescription painkillers. The popularity is partly due to the fact that paracetamol was much safer for the stomach than many other analgesics that were in the open market at the time. Soon they began to appear drugs, which consists of paracetamol along with other analgesics and decongestants.


What is acetaminophen

Paracetamol is a relatively weak inhibitor of prostaglandin. It blocks the production of prostaglandins - chemicals which, among others, transmit pain signals to the brain. In this respect, it differs from aspirin, paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - it blocks the pain signals in the brain, and not a source of pain.

Structurally similar to aspirin, paracetamol. They both recognized by the same enzyme - cyclooxygenase (COX). COX is an activator of pain - if necessary, he intensifies the pain to the brain, and send a signal to the whole organism that has the problem. It is the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. By reducing the number of prostaglandins that are available for the synthesis of paracetamol facilitates headaches and other pains. In addition, it prevents expansion of blood vessels, which is one of the factors associated pain. However, only paracetamol inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis in the central nervous system, having a minimal effect on the peripheral tissues or no effect on them.


Why use paracetamol

Paracetamol is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including headaches associated with stress, headaches, muscle pain, neuralgia Neuralgia - the scourge of the elderly  Neuralgia - the scourge of the elderly
 , Back pain, joint pain Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?  Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?
 , Rheumatic pains, toothache Toothache - itself does not take place  Toothache - itself does not take place
   and menstrual pain. This medicine suits most people, including the elderly and young children, as it has very few side effects. Since Paracetamol has analgesic effect and thus do not harm the stomach, it is used in the treatment of osteoarthritis Natural treatment for osteoarthritis - relieves pain without pills  Natural treatment for osteoarthritis - relieves pain without pills
   - Non-inflammatory arthritis species. It may also be useful for patients suffering from other types of arthritis.

Furthermore, paracetamol possesses antipyretic activity - it affects the hypothalamus of the brain that regulates body temperature. Therefore, acetaminophen is found in many preparations against colds and flu. Even with long-term use of paracetamol is not addictive.


It must be remembered

Paracetamol can take patients who are contraindicated nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as suffering from asthma and peptic ulcer disease. It is also possible to take people with hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid.

Cholestyramine, a drug used to lower cholesterol, may impair the absorption of paracetamol. Metoclopramide and domperidone, which are used to relieve the symptoms of indigestion, have the opposite effect and make them simultaneously with paracetamol should be with extreme care.

Side effects from valtrex - rare

August 5, 2012

 side effects of Valtrex
 All antiviral drugs have side effects, and Valtrex is no exception. However, these side effects are seldom serious, this happens mostly when Valtrex prolonged use at high doses. If used in accordance with its instructions, the side effects are minimized.

 Side effects from valtrex - rare

The principle of operation of Valtrex

Valtrex suppressing life activity of sensitive viruses thereto by embedding into their genetic system (DNA) and thereby inhibiting its synthesis. It activates the main active ingredient of Valtrex in the body by enzymes secreted susceptible to the virus.

Valtrex active against herpes simplex viruses Herpes simplex - in fact, not so simple  Herpes simplex - in fact, not so simple
   Types 1 and 2, the herpes virus type 4 and 6, the herpes virus that causes chickenpox and shingles Shingles and chickenpox - from the same pathogen  Shingles and chickenpox - from the same pathogen
 , Cytomegalovirus. It is used for the treatment and prevention of relapse of diseases caused by these infectious agents.

Valtrex generally well tolerated without causing any side effects. However, side effects sometimes occur. They occur most often during long-term use of the drug at high doses. All side effects pronounced in overdose of the drug, which occurs even at recommended doses, if the patient has impaired renal function. Therefore, patients with such disorders is recommended to reduce the dose of the drug.

 Side effects from valtrex - rare

Valtrex Side effects of the central nervous system

The most frequent side effect of the central nervous system is a headache. If you continue receiving Valtrex headache joins dizziness. In this case, the drug is better to cancel, since the following side effects are confusion, hallucinations, various intelligence and memory disorders.

In some patients, while taking Valtrex develops pronounced motor and mental stimulation in conjunction with trembling hands, legs and the whole body, gait disturbance and small movements (ataxia), difficulty in pronouncing certain words and syllables (dysarthria), convulsive readiness and the development of seizures in provoking the slightest external factors, severe disorders of the brain. This threatening condition that can result in coma and death of the patient. But if the time to stop the drug, the condition of the central nervous system of the patient fully recovers.

Very often these severe side effects occur when taking Valtrex in high doses for the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection, which is held against the backdrop of transplant organs.

 Side effects from valtrex - rare

Valtrex Side effects from the digestive organs

When receiving Valtrex patients often appears more or less severe nausea. Sometimes it joined vomiting, diarrhea and general discomfort in the abdomen. In most cases, such side effects do not require the withdrawal of the drug should only adjust the dose.

In rare cases when taking Valtrex develop disorders of the liver - they demand the immediate withdrawal of the drug. Exhibit such side effects the changes of blood biochemical parameters, may also join the yellowness of the skin and sclera.

 Side effects from valtrex - rare

Valtrex Side effects from blood

Sometimes, during long-term treatment Valtrex patients develop changes on the part of hematopoiesis. There is a depression education leukocytes and platelets.

Reducing the number of leukocytes in the blood is fraught with low immunity, since the main function of white blood cells - is to protect the body from infection. The primary function of platelets - a blood clot, so while reducing their content in the blood there is increased bleeding. This is particularly dangerous for patients who may develop any bleeding, such as stomach ulcer or duodenal ulcer.

Very rarely develop hemolytic anemia - severe disease, with the destruction of red blood cells. It is common for patients with a sharp decline in immunity, for example, in severe HIV infection.

 Side effects from valtrex - rare

What other side effects can give Valtrex

When receiving Valtrex sometimes (very rarely) may be temporarily disrupted kidney function, renal colic appear Renal colic: a signal that the danger in the bud  Renal colic: a signal that the danger in the bud
   (severe attacks of pain in the kidneys). And very rarely, acute renal failure Acute renal failure - causes and consequences  Acute renal failure - causes and consequences
   (ARF) - a serious condition in which the kidneys cease to function. Acute renal failure often develops in patients who have already had any violations of the kidneys.

Sometimes, while taking Valtrex develop various respiratory disorders, there are various types of rashes, itching, increased sensitivity to light. Allergic reactions often occur in the form of urticaria and angioedema.

Valtrex - an effective antiviral drug, but it has side effects, so appoint a doctor.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • Valtrex