The disease is similar to psychogenic anorexia, described in his writings, Avicenna, but attention to it appeared in the second half of the 19th century after the publication of the works of Gall and Lasegue. And a hundred years later, in the late 20th century, psychogenic anorexia has become a real social disaster.
What psychogenic anorexia and reasons for its development
Anorexic called a complete lack of appetite. Causes of anorexia may be different. Previously regarded as the main causes of organic brain damage, including appetite center located in the hypothalamus. Today, anorexia
Anorexia nervosa - symptoms and effects on the body
more likely to develop on the background of violations of the psyche. This is called psychogenic anorexia or neuro-psychological.
Increased incidence of anorexia nervosa is associated with increased social activity of women, starting with the 60-ies of the last century. It is noted a high enough cultural level of patients with this disease, and certain personality type (propensity for obsessive-compulsive disorder), and especially education (suppression of the individual child's parents).
The most common psychogenic anorexia begins in adolescence has a clear dependence on the onset of menses, starting after one or several years after menarche (first menstrual period). On average, the disease begins at age 17. It begins slowly, under the influence of fashion and opinion of their peers, the girl appears overvalued idea that her overweight, from which you want to get rid of.
Gradually, the idea is subject to the behavior of all the girls she limits herself to the food improves exercise, playing sports and so on. This so-called predanorekticheskaya phase of the disease. At this stage, the disease is usually not decreased appetite, which causes undulatory reducing body weight-increase. In addition, each meal is accompanied by serious remorse. Since completely suppress appetite at this stage can not, after taking food is increasingly removed from the body using a specially-induced vomiting.
Quite quickly the patient loses weight in the range of 10-50% of the initial level, and the disease enters a new phase - anorectic, when the appetite disappears. At the same time may have menstrual irregularities, up to the complete absence of menstruation. The patients are very mobile, but social activity thus often reduced due to lack of necessary energy. Humor often ranges from enthusiastic and upbeat with a hint of hysteria to low, tendency to depression
Depression - a little more than a bad mood
Anxiety - how to distinguish normal from disease?
Finally, with a significant reduction in body weight occurs cachectic phase of the disease when exhaustion looms form and affects the state of the internal organs. The mood in this period gloomy, depressive, but keep the increased mobility of patients, which often brings others into error with respect to the severity of their condition. If this period is not to hospitalize the woman and give her medical care, body irreversible changes occur, that would lead to her death. The disease can last for a total of several years.
The main signs of psychogenic anorexia are not eating, weight loss of at least 10% from baseline, the absence of menstruation for at least three menstrual cycles, lack of signs of internal diseases that caused the drastic weight loss, lack of mental diseases ( e.g. schizophrenia) or organic lesions of the brain (cerebral trauma, tumors, etc.), as well as onset of age or older than 35 years.
But in order to make a diagnosis of psychogenic anorexia, to exclude mental illness, organic brain disease and diseases of internal organs. Refinement of the diagnosis, as well as the subsequent treatment is carried out on the basis of a psychiatric hospital. To eliminate mental illness
Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?
(eg, schizophrenia, manic-depressive illness) for the patient carefully observed. At the same time carry out X-ray study of the brain and, if necessary, magnetic resonance imaging to exclude tumors, consequences of traumatic brain injury, neuroinfections, vascular changes in the brain, and so on.
Also carried out a survey of all internal organs and systems to eliminate latent diseases that caused anorexia.
Onset of the disease is rarely detected, the patient often attracts attention in an already advanced stage. Therefore treat psychogenic anorexia should be only in a psychiatric hospital with isolation from family. Appointed frequent smaller meals with the introduction of small doses of insulin. If necessary (if the patient refuses to take food) feeding is conducted by gavage. Since the gastrointestinal tract unaccustomed to food loads, calorie and food volume increases gradually.
Appointed as psychotropic drugs, conducted psychotherapy. Prognosis in most cases favorable, but there are cases of death of patients from exhaustion.