Hydrocortisone - instructions on how the drug works
February 8, 2014
Hydrocortisone - Instructions for this medicinal product contains all the information on the mechanism of action and the use of glucocorticoid (glucocorticosteroid) funds - GCS. The manual also contains all the data on the side effects of hydrocortisone and contraindications for its use.
The mechanism of action of hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone - a synthetic glucocorticoid agent - an analog of natural human hormones of the adrenal cortex. Hydrocortisone is produced in a variety of dosage form: solution for injection in ampoules, 1% skin ointments and 0, 5% ophthalmic ointment.
Various pharmaceutical companies produce hydrocortisone under their own brand names: hydrocortisone, akortin, gidrokort, korteyd, kortef, latikort, lokoid, sopolkort, Huyton.
Depending on the dosage form provides a rapid hydrocortisone effective general or local anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti protivotoksicheskoe and action. Therefore Hydrocortisone is often used in emergencies when you need to quickly remove the tissue swelling which threatens the life of the patient (eg, acute allergic reactions). For a long time Hydrocortisone is usually not prescribed because of the potential side effects, which have hydrocortisone (as with any GCS) a lot.
Inflammation and allergy Hydrocortisone suppresses due to inhibition of the synthesis of the main active ingredients responsible for these reactions - prostaglandins. At the same time it also reduces the capillary permeability (swelling of tissue is removed quickly). In addition, hydrocortisone inhibits the growth of connective tissue, scarring at the site of infections and hardening of the tissue in such systemic connective tissue diseases such as lupus and scleroderma.
Hydrocortisone has a significant impact on the hormonal system and metabolism
Improves metabolism and losing weight without dieting
Indications and contraindications
Hydrocortisone by injection is used in emergency cases, acute adrenal insufficiency, allergic reactions that threaten the life of the patient, bronchial asthma, severe course of myocardial infarction, thyrotoxic crisis (sharp increase in levels of thyroid hormones and severe violations of the cardiovascular system). Sometimes hydrocortisone injection prescribed for severe autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and others) and systemic connective tissue diseases (scleroderma, lupus erythematosus, etc). Injections of hydrocortisone
Hydrocortisone - a drug that could save the life of the patient
will help to quickly remove any swelling of the tissues of origin, thus relieving the patient's condition.
Hydrocortisone Ointment is for external use only prescribed for a short period of time to relieve swelling of the skin and allergic inflammatory processes. Hydrocortisone eye ointment and for this purpose used to reduce inflammation and swelling to the eye tissue.
Contraindications for single administration of hydrocortisone for health virtually non-existent (except for individual intolerance). Prolonged use of hydrocortisone is typically not practiced because of the large amount arising in this side effects. Multiple use of hydrocortisone is contraindicated in infectious processes (it is prescribed only in conjunction with antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral drugs), tumors, children up to two years, during pregnancy and breastfeeding, gastric ulcer, and persistent increase in blood pressure.
Side effects of hydrocortisone
Adverse effects of hydrocortisone are largely prolonged use:
- on the part of the endocrine system - steroid diabetes
Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease
adrenal suppression, dysfunction of the hypothalamus, including the appearance of crescent-shaped face, obesity, increased body hair, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, delayed sexual development in children;
- from metabolism - increased excretion of calcium (thinning of the bones - osteoporosis) and potassium (disturbance of the heart, muscle pain, jerking), obesity, increased protein breakdown (decreased immunity, muscle weakness), increased sweating, a delay of sodium and Water (swelling);
- the central nervous system - disorientation, causeless euphoria, hallucinations, psychosis, depression, increased intracranial pressure, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, headache;
- on the part of the cardiovascular system - heart rhythm disorders, increase in heart failure, high blood pressure, tendency to thrombosis
- the part of the digestive system - nausea, vomiting, steroid stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers, erosive lesions of the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract, sometimes abnormal liver function;
- From the senses - a sudden loss of vision, cataracts
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, Increased intraocular pressure, secondary infections of the eye;
- on the part of the musculoskeletal system - slowing growth and ossification processes in children, osteoporosis (thinning and brittle bones), muscle atrophy;
- from the skin - slow healing of wounds, bleeding in the skin, thinning of the skin, a violation of its pigmentation, acne, stretch marks, fungal infections;
- by the immune system - allergic reactions, immunosuppression;
- long-term use and quick cancellation - withdrawal.
Vasculitis of the skin - is almost always allergic in nature
October 20, 2012
Vasculitis of the skin - this is mainly a disease of allergic origin. They can only be distributed on the skin and can capture and some internal organs. Finally, vasculitis skin may have a secondary character when they - are developing on the background of some other underlying disease.
Causes skin vasculitis
Vasculitis of the skin - is inflammation of the infectious nature in small blood vessels of the skin. The nature of these processes in the majority of cases an allergic: in the wall of the blood vessel of an allergic reaction occurs, destroying it. The manifestations of the skin may thus be different. It depends on the nature of the vessel (artery, vein), their size (small, medium), and by a process involving internal organs.
Vasculitis of the skin have an infectious-allergic origin. Under the influence of infection varies work of the immune system
The immune system - how it works?
In response to the introduction of the antigen (infection) develops an allergic reaction. In the long process of such diseases often becomes autoimmune, that is an allergy to the body's own tissues, in this case, the blood vessel wall tissue of the skin.
Changing the properties of immunity
Immunity - types and characteristics in children in adults
It can also occur under prolonged exposure to toxic (e.g., by smoking, industrial harmfulness and so on), with hypothermia, traumas. Great importance is attached today and hereditary characteristics of an organism.
Vasculitis of the skin are divided into surface (this affects the small blood vessels of the skin) and deep (with the defeat of the larger vessels located on the border between the skin and subcutaneous tissue).
For superficial skin vasculitis include: hemorrhagic vasculitis
Vasculitis - when blood vessels refuse to work
(Henoch's disease, kapillyarotoksikoz), hemorrhagic leykoklastichesky mikrobid Miescher-blind, vasculitis Werther-Dyumlinga (nodular necrotizing vasculitis), trehsimptomny Guzhero-Dyuppera syndrome, allergic arteriolitis Ruiter, disseminated allergic angiitis Roskama.
For deep vasculitis include: periarteritis nodosa, vascular Garkavi allergy, acute and chronic erythema nodosum, knotty vasculitis Montgomery -O'Liri - Barker, subacute migratory hypoderm Vilanova Pignola.
The main symptoms of the surface of the skin vasculitis
Hemorrhagic vasculitis manifests point or larger hemorrhagic rash, rash groups, arranged symmetrically on the arms, legs, buttocks, the lateral surface of the abdomen, around the joints. At first, the rash has a bright red color, and then, after a few days, fade and disappear completely. In this disease, a process often involved joints, gastrointestinal tract and kidneys.
Miescher syndrome-trailers. This chronic disease on the skin of the legs, arms and face appear small red spots and hemorrhages. Onset of the disease is acute, develops some time after infection. The course is not difficult, but a long, recurrent.
Vasculitis Werther-Dyumlinga appears as a dense brownish flat nodules, red blotchy rash, hemorrhage. Nodules are sometimes subjected to necrosis with the formation of ulcers on the skin surface, which after healing scars on the body. The disease often develops in the presence of foci of infection in a patient with hemolytic streptococcus. It is prolonged, recurrent.
Trehsimptomny syndrome Guzhero-Dyuppera. On the skin there are three types of skin elements, nodules, erythema and purpuroznye spots, which are located mainly in the lower limbs. Nodules are sometimes subjected to necrosis. Eritrematoznye round spots, one centimeter in diameter, smaller purpuroznye have a ring shape. Disease begins acutely, but then goes into a chronic, long-term flows
The main symptoms of the deep skin vasculitis
The most characteristic of this group is a disease periarteritis nodosa. This is a very serious disease that affects the wall sufficiently large vessels in the skin to form in them extensions (aneurysms), and blood clots that lead to violations of blood supply to organs and tissues. Periarteritis nodosa - a systemic vasculitis
Systemic vasculitis: the disease may be different
But it has a cutaneous form, in which there is no internal organ involvement. When cutaneous form of the disease on the body there are small nodules and branching rash bluish color. The skin may appear in areas of necrosis, ulceration. The patient has high fever, there are muscle and joint pain.
Vasculitis of the skin may be different, in order to cure them, it is necessary to lead a full examination of the patient.