- Anaphylaxis: a gun on sparrows
- Why develop an anaphylactic shock
Why develop an anaphylactic shock
Any foreign substance (such as bacteria, viruses, medications, insect venom, and so on), introduced in the body, called an antigen, and in order to remove it, the body produces antibodies that by sticking with the antigen, are precipitated and removed from the body . This is a normal reaction of the body.
But sometimes the body gives the introduction of the antigen response increased dramatically with the release of huge amounts of antibodies
Antibodies - "soldiers' immunity
(sensitization), which are deposited in the organs and tissues, and are activated when the re-introduction of this antigen.
When connecting the antigen-antibody released a number of biologically active substances (histamine, serotonin, bradykinin), which cause an increase in the permeability of blood vessels, disturbance of blood circulation in small blood vessels, muscle spasm of internal organs and a number of other disorders. This facilitates the exit of the liquid portion of the blood into tissues and blood clots. The blood accumulates in the periphery, internal organs and the brain does not get enough oxygen, which is the main cause of loss of consciousness.
How does an anaphylactic shock
Start of acute anaphylactic shock, sometimes lightning.
Mild anaphylactic shock (duration of development - from a few minutes to two hours), the patient first itch, then there is a feeling of heaviness and tightness in the chest, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, skin redness, sneezing, runny nose, dizziness
Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
, Headaches, palpitations, hot flashes, increasing weakness.
The average severity of anaphylactic shock: reddening of the skin is replaced by pallor, blood pressure suddenly drops
Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?
, Quickens the heartbeat, pain in the heart
Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor
, Severe weakness. There are a variety of neurological symptoms: dizziness, blurred vision, anxiety, hearing loss, ringing and buzzing in the ears, and so on. Against this background, possible development of an attack of asthma, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain) and kidneys (excessive urination).
Severe anaphylactic shock is characterized by the development of a lightning collapse (sudden severe weakness of cardiac activity and a drop in blood pressure). The patient rapidly fades, pulse is hard, falling blood pressure, loss of consciousness occurs, the pupils are dilated, their reaction to light almost absent. If blood pressure continues to fall, the heart stops and stops breathing. Sometimes the shock lasts for just a minute and ends with death.
After suffering an anaphylactic shock there is a period of immunity, which lasts 2 - 3 weeks. At this time, allergy disappear (or greatly reduced). Subsequently, the degree of sensitization increases sharply, and displays the following cases of anaphylactic shock to the substance, even if it occurs after months or years are more severe.
Complications of anaphylactic shock
After an anaphylactic shock can develop complications such as allergic defeat of the heart muscle (myocarditis) and liver (hepatitis), kidneys (glomerulonephritis), and various lesions of the nervous system and others. There may also worsen chronic diseases.
Help with anaphylactic shock
Medical help a patient in a state of anaphylactic shock, should be made clearly, quickly, in the correct sequence. First of all, you need to stop further flow of the allergen into the body: to suspend the introduction of the drug, carefully remove the sting with poison sac if stung by a bee. Above the injection site (stinging) need to apply a tourniquet (when possible). Place drug administration (stinging) is usually cut away to create a solution of adrenaline local spasm of blood vessels, preventing the rapid spread of the allergen.
The patient is placed in a position that prevents the tongue and getting vomit in the airway, provide fresh air, provide oxygen to breathe oxygen from the pillows.
Further treatment of anaphylaxis is aimed at neutralizing the biologically active substances produced by the reaction of antigen - antibody, normalization of the cardiovascular and respiratory activity, a decrease in vascular permeability and prevention of late complications in the internal organs.
Prevention of anaphylactic shock
Predict the occurrence of anaphylactic shock in most cases impossible. But we must pay attention to the symptoms of allergy to a substance (drug, food) and then try to avoid the re-introduction of this substance into the body.