How to deal with high blood pressure?

April 16, 2009

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 How to deal with high blood pressure?
   Blood pressure is determined by the volume of blood that pumps the heart and the resistance which it meets in the arteries. Shakes more blood than the heart and human arteries narrow, the higher the pressure.

High blood pressure is a very common disorder. Often, the pressure in humans can be increased for years without causing any appearance whatsoever symptoms. However, uncontrolled high blood pressure increases the risk of serious diseases, including heart attack and stroke.

 How to deal with high blood pressure?


Symptoms of high blood pressure may be dull headaches, dizzy Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet  Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
   and nosebleeds. However, in most cases, these symptoms appear only when the violation was very serious and potentially life-threatening. By the time a person could live with high blood pressure for years.

In order to notice the onset of the disease, it is necessary every two years to pass a full medical examination. If the blood pressure has increased you need to be tested often.

 How to deal with high blood pressure?

Risk factors

  • Age. The older the person, the greater the likelihood that his blood pressure is high. In men, the risk increases especially after 40-45 years, women - after menopause.
  • Family history. The likelihood of developing hypertension is particularly high for those whose close relatives suffer from this disorder.
  • Being overweight or obese. The more overweight a person is, the more blood is required to supply oxygen and nutrients to the various tissues of the body. The greater the volume of blood circulating through the arteries, the more force it against the walls of blood vessels.
  • Lack of physical activity. People leading a sedentary lifestyle, increased heart rate, and the more often the heart beats, the higher the blood pressure falls on the walls of the arteries. In addition, a sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of overweight and obesity.
  • Smoking. In the process of smoking (or chewing) tobacco blood pressure every time temporarily increased. In addition, the chemical substances contained in tobacco, change the inner shell of the walls of arteries, causing the arteries are narrowed, which also leads to increased pressure. In passive smokers smoke it has the same effect.
  • Excess salt (sodium) in the diet. Excessive consumption of sodium, which is a constituent material of salt, causes fluid retention, which increases blood pressure.
  • Lack of potassium in the diet. Potassium helps to regulate sodium balance in the body's cells. Deficiency of this element will cause that sodium will accumulate in the blood.
  • Lack of vitamin D. While it is not clear exactly how vitamin D deficiency leads to high blood pressure, but it is known that it has an effect on an enzyme produced by the kidneys that affects blood pressure.
  • Alcohol abuse. Over time, excessive alcohol consumption causes damage to the heart, which leads not only to an increase in pressure, but also inflicts severe damage throughout the body as a whole.
  • Stress. High levels of stress is temporary, but a very strong increase in blood pressure. The situation is aggravated by the fact that often people try to cope with stress How to beat stress? Create an oasis  How to beat stress? Create an oasis
   using overeating, alcohol and tobacco.
  • Chronic diseases. Such disorders such as diabetes, kidney disease, sleep apnea Dreams: how to understand our dreams  Dreams: how to understand our dreams
 , High cholesterol levels significantly increases the risk of hypertension.

Sometimes, blood pressure rises during pregnancy. Although hypertension is predominantly a disease of adults, it occurs in children and adolescents, such as those who suffer from various disorders of the heart and kidneys. With the increasing number of children, sedentary and did not adhere to proper nutrition Proper nutrition - the basic precepts of healthy food  Proper nutrition - the basic precepts of healthy food
 It can be expected to increase the number of patients with high blood pressure in the age group of 20 years.

High blood pressure for a short period in certain situations is considered the norm. But if your blood pressure by itself is not reduced, you should consult a doctor and find out the reasons of pressure and possible treatment. Even a slight increase in blood pressure can cause irreparable damage to the heart, causing heart disease, have adverse effects on the eyes, kidneys, and plant upset the nervous system.

Preinfarction condition - signs of impending disaster

January 6, 2011

 preinfarction state
 Myocardial infarction in most cases precedes preinfarction state. It arises due to the cessation of blood flow of the coronary (heart supply) vessels. But heart attack while developing not always. If we make timely treatment, the situation can become stable and safe for the patient.

 Preinfarction condition - signs of impending disaster

What refers to PIS

Officially preinfarction condition called unstable angina. At the suggestion of the World Health Organization (WHO), it includes the following situations:

  • For the first time emerged angina - the appearance of angina attacks when they were not before. This group includes patients who have since the first signs of the disease was not more than one month.
  • Progressive angina - a condition where the angina were in the past, but recently they have started to appear more frequently. This category also includes situations where there are more severe and prolonged pain, changing their location, there is irradiation (spread of pain beyond the area of ​​the heart). To eliminate the pain takes more nitroglycerin tablets than before.
  • The occurrence of angina attacks alone if the patient previously had only angina (pain after the appearance of any physical exertion).
  • The early post-infarction angina - occurrence of attacks of pain in the period from the first day up to one month after myocardial infarction.
  • Angina that occurs after coronary artery bypass surgery performed. This surgery is performed in cases where the plaques narrow the lumen of the large arteries of the heart. The surgeon sets the bypass vessel (shunt), and blood, bypassing the affected areas of vessels to the heart in sufficient quantities.
  • Prinzmetal angina, which occurs due to coronary artery spasm. It is characterized by severe episodes of pain, which usually appear in the early morning hours.

 Preinfarction condition - signs of impending disaster

What's happening

The first patient worried about angina - Baking, compressing, pressing pain in the chest that occurs paroxysmal. It is characterized by irradiation: the pain can give in the left shoulder, arm and shoulder blade, and sometimes - in the neck and jaw, and in rare cases - in his right shoulder and lower back.

The attack usually lasts from two to five minutes, but in progressive angina Progressive angina - what dangers lie in wait for a man  Progressive angina - what dangers lie in wait for a man
   This time is increased to twenty minutes.

A feature of the pain is a gradual build-up, gain compression and burning. After reaching a climax, it quickly subsides. Also, the pain disappears or decreases after administration of nitroglycerin and stop the load.

Angina may be accompanied by rapid breathing, feeling of dry mouth, sweating and pale skin. In some cases, increased blood pressure. Patients usually die down, and are afraid to move, sometimes there is a pronounced fear of death.

 Preinfarction condition - signs of impending disaster

Urgent Care

Emergency assistance should be directed towards the elimination of pain and prevention of myocardial infarction. It is necessary to ensure that the patient complete rest and fresh air (but not cold).

The first thing to take a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue. If the pain does not decrease, it is necessary to take one more. In cases where this does not work, be sure to call an ambulance.

The sooner the patient to take nitroglycerin, the faster stop or reduce pain. Side-effects are dizziness and headaches. But they are not grounds for replacement of nitroglycerin other medicines, as these phenomena are short-lived and are not dangerous for the patient's life. The drug has a vasodilating properties and in some cases can trigger the development of fainting or collapse (sharp drop in pressure in the blood vessels). Therefore, multiple dose of nitroglycerin over short periods of time is not recommended. If his intolerance is very pronounced and the patient's low blood pressure, then other medications.

When the patient indicates that the pain of this nature earlier eliminated when applying validol, you can use this tool. Tablets or capsules give a person under the tongue until complete resorption, and validol Validol - old, but reliable  Validol - old, but reliable
   in liquid form can be dripped into sugar. Instead, you can use Corvalol or valokordin. All of these drugs reflexively dilate the coronary vessels.

To eliminate angina attack successfully applied papaverine, platifillin, no-spa, solutions which administered intramuscularly.

These agents possess vasodilating properties, and therefore improve blood flow in coronary arteries. If the pain in the heart appeared on the background of a hypertensive crisis (a significant increase in blood pressure), it will be effective aminophylline, which is administered intravenously with saline.

In addition to these drugs for angina attack that persists nitroglycerin, the patient should chew an aspirin. This medicine is the antiplatelet agent, that is, reduces the formation of blood clots within the lumen of blood vessels. If you develop a myocardial infarction, it is the action of aspirin reduces the likelihood of a patient's death.

In those cases where the pain attack quickly stopped, the patient will soon need to see a doctor, who will pick up the necessary treatment. If angina long, people will require emergency hospitalization. The hospital is required to perform an electrocardiogram and blood chemistry is performed. This will help determine developed a myocardial infarction or not. The patient intravenously in a drip administered nitroglycerin, appointed anticoagulants (drugs that prevent blood clots). If the patient is promptly taken to the hospital and treatment is started, the likelihood of a heart attack decreases.

 Preinfarction condition - signs of impending disaster

The signs preceding infarction condition

Preinfarction angina or myocardial infarction prodromal period (the period of the precursors of the disease) occurs in about half of patients .  By precursors include appearing for the first time angina .  In patients who previously suffered from angina pains in heart attacks occur more frequently, last longer and harder .  It joins angina rest angina - formed the so-called unstable angina .  An important symptom is the lack of therapeutic effect of nitroglycerin in patients in whom it had previously managed to remove the pain .  Sometimes in this period marked ECG changes (violation of rhythm and conduction), reflecting ischemia (insufficient blood supply) attack in an area where further developing myocardial infarction .  ECG changes are not always typical preceding infarction condition, but if they coincide with angina, the likelihood of myocardial infarction increases .  These ECG changes do not go along with the attack and may stay a few days .

Various new types of modified strokes, which may precede myocardial infarction, can be conventionally considered preinfarction condition.

This is the first attack of angina, spontaneous (not caused by some external displays, and internal factors) angina, as well as the so-called progressive or unstable angina.

Angina is considered first arose, if the first signs emerged in the last month. If the frequency and intensity of angina attacks increase, it may speak of a preceding infarction condition.

The most dangerous are one or more consecutive long (15-30 minutes) angina attacks, do not respond to nitroglycerin, which are accompanied by ECG changes, but without the typical symptoms of myocardial infarction.

No less important feature is the occurrence of attacks of angina at rest in patients who have previously experienced seizures only angina. In preinfarction condition appear angina rest at night, their frequency, duration and intensity has been steadily increasing. In addition, angina start to appear with minor physical and mental stress, which previously was well tolerated. Seizures may occur even during the act of defecation because of the slight straining.

About preinfarction state can speak and that previously well removes angina in this patient has nitroglycerin is not a fast action, and sometimes do not remove an attack.

Changes and character strokes. If earlier it was just pain, but now it is often joined by nausea, sweating, palpitations, dyspnea. If the patient falls down on the night of heartache Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor  Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor
   and suffocation, it is often accompanied by the fear of death, which greatly exacerbates the condition of the patient.

Unstable angina may take several weeks or even months and then stabilize or go to a myocardial infarction.

It is found a special form of angina - spontaneous angina Spontaneous angina - the most rare form of this disease  Spontaneous angina - the most rare form of this disease
   or Prinzmetal angina (on behalf of the American cardiologist, first described it in the mid-50s of the last century). With this type of angina pain attacks occur at rest without apparent provocation or during exercise, usually well-tolerated. Such attacks may occur at the same time, such as at night or early in the morning as a series of attacks (usually 2-4 attack consecutive short intervals) are removed and nitroglycerine.

If you suspect a preceding infarction condition should seek emergency medical attention. Treatment in this case, we need to continue in the hospital, it is better if it is based on a specialized cardiology department.

Galina Romanenko

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  • heart attack