Bradycardia in athletes - is there cause for concern?

May 21, 2014

 bradycardia in athletes
 Bradycardia in athletes develop against the backdrop of regular exercise. Under the influence of these factors in the body is the energy change of the regime. This means that a reduced number of heartbeats per minute is enough to provide the athlete tissue with nutrients and oxygen, which is delivered via the bloodstream. But sometimes bradycardia in athletes can be a sign of pathology.


What is bradycardia and its species

Bradycardia - a reduction in heart rate less than 60 beats per minute. Heart rate (HR) is connected with the ability of the heart to contract under the action of pulses occurring in the very heart muscle (myocardium). This feature is called the myocardium with machine guns and ensured by special muscles, forming the so-called conduction system of the heart.


Bradycardia and Sports

The human heart has the ability to adapt to the intensity of exercise. Athletes training takes place as a result of permanent changes in the body's energy regime and the regime of circulation. This allows athletes to maintain high performance in severe and prolonged physical exertion. As a result of training the heart muscle increases in volume (myocardial hypertrophy) with simultaneous expansion of the cavities of the heart. Such changes are characteristic of the physiological athlete's heart. The physiological myocardial hypertrophy is reversible, it passes after reducing the load on the heart.

The size of the heart in athletes involved in different sports, different. The biggest increase in heart size observed among representatives of high-speed sports - runners, skiers, cyclists. Slightly smaller heart in athletes engaged in different kinds of fighting, football, hockey. Athletes involved in heavy lifting, the heart is changed slightly, and does not differ from normal healthy human heart.


Physiological athletic heart

When you load the correct systematic athletic heart is a variant of the norm, and provides a high performance athlete. A feature of the physiological athlete's heart is a combination of the most economical work alone with the ability to achieve extremely high efficiency during exercise.

Maximum economical work of the heart is that the heart rate is reduced to 60 or less beats per minute (bradycardia sign) while maintaining normal blood circulation in the body of an athlete. Ensuring adequate nutrition of human tissue wherein the development is achieved by additional network of small blood vessels (capillaries) that are suitable, in particular, and to the heart muscle.

Increasing the size of athlete's heart is limited to certain limits. A very large volume of the heart (more than 1200 cm3) is always a risk of transfer of physiological athlete's heart in the pathological. Therefore, for these athletes need special surveillance.

Physiological athletic heart provides a quick transition from bradycardia to tachycardia Tachycardia - the body to the limit?  Tachycardia - the body to the limit?
   within one second after the start of the workout. After 10-30 seconds, the heart rate increases the rate of 2-5 and may reach 160-240 per minute and more. After that, there is a rapid heart rate device to the energy needs of the body. After training, a rapid heart rate recovery to baseline.


Pathological athletic heart

If you exercise properly built up in the body of an athlete or have pockets of chronic infection, heart abnormalities occur. Pathological changes sporting heart significantly increased in volume (sometimes up to 1700 cm3) and has a reduced capacity for work. This is due to the fact that too large an increase in the volume of infarction leads to a deterioration of its blood supply, the development of oxygen starvation of individual muscle fibers of the heart muscle and even their necrosis (gangrene), which is essentially a minor heart infarction. Such necrotic muscle fibers are replaced by connective tissue, thus forming, cardio. In connection with this pathological performance sports hearts dramatically reduced.

Between the degree of bradycardia and state of fitness athlete there is full compliance. Some athletes with bradycardia Bradycardia - when the heart stops  Bradycardia - when the heart stops
   you will notice a bad adaptation to stress, decreased performance, fatigue, sleep disorders Dreams: how to understand our dreams  Dreams: how to understand our dreams
   and so on. Such athletes require inspection, particularly if the heart rate have less than 40 beats per minute. Quite often they can identify signs of pathological athlete's heart.

Thus, bradycardia and sport are closely linked. The aim of sports doctors is to monitor the state of the cardiovascular system of athletes and their timely detection of such phenomena as abnormal sporting heart.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • bradycardia

Diroton - instruction: how to use ACE inhibitors

September 19, 2011

 Diroton - guide
 Diroton - a drug to lower blood pressure Medications to reduce blood pressure - the means employed  Medications to reduce blood pressure - the means employed
   (BP). It prevents the formation of biologically active substances that contribute to the rise in blood pressure and an increased accumulation of fluids in the body. Action dirotona lasts for days after the reception.

 Diroton - instruction: how to use ACE inhibitors

What is an ACE inhibitor

In human blood, there are substances that contribute to the spasm of blood vessels and raising blood pressure - angiotensin. Proteins that are derived from the neutral plasma protein angiotensinogen. First therefrom under the influence of the enzyme renin (his produce kidney) also forms a neutral protein angiotensin I, then of angiotensin I under the influence of another enzyme - angiotensin converting or ACE (it is produced in the lung) is formed of angiotensin II, which has a strong vasoconstrictor (vasoconstrictor) effect. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of hormones that delay in the body fluid (aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone - ADH), which also contributes to the rise in blood pressure.

Today, to reduce blood pressure are widely used medications that suppress the production of APF, which reduces the formation of angiotensin II and lower blood pressure. ACE inhibitors help prolong life in patients with chronic heart failure and hypertension.

 Diroton - instruction: how to use ACE inhibitors

The mechanism of action dirotona

Diroton (INN - lisinopril) - a drug to lower blood pressure, which is available in tablets of different dosages (2, 5, 5, 10 and 20 mg) of the Hungarian pharmaceutical company Gedeon Richter.

Diroton relates to inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme, it inhibits the formation of angiotensin II from angiotensin I. As a result, the blood content decreases angiotensin II, aldosterone, ADH. All this leads to a decrease in blood pressure, and strain on the heart. Including reduced pressure in the pulmonary capillaries, increases cardiac output of blood and increases exercise capacity of the heart muscle in patients with chronic heart failure. Diroton expands the arteries than the veins, which allows its use for varicose veins. With prolonged use of the drug decreases hypertrophy (thickening of the walls) of the heart muscle, improving blood flow to the ischemic (obeskrovlennooy due to narrowing of the arteries supplying her) heart muscle.

Diroton well absorbed in the intestine, it enters the blood and acts throughout the day. Excreted by the kidneys unchanged. Sustained effect was observed at a constant taking the drug for at least a month.

 Diroton - instruction: how to use ACE inhibitors

Indications and contraindications for use dirotona

Diroton appoint:

  • when persistent increase in blood pressure - both as a single agent or as part of a treatment;
  • in chronic cardiovascular disease - in the complex treatment;
  • myocardial infarction within the first day of the disease, unless there is a sharp decline in blood pressure in order to maintain proper blood circulation and prevention of disorders of the heart muscle;
  • renal impairment and high blood pressure in patients with diabetes.

Admission dirotona contraindicated:

  • allergic reactions to the drug, in particular, expressed in angioedema, including angioneurotic edema in the background of allergy to other drugs or foodstuffs;
  • under the age of 18 years (clinical studies have not been carried out);
  • Pregnancy and breast-feeding;
  • hypersensitivity to diroton or other ACE inhibitors.

Precautions should be prescribed diroton with severe kidney disease in violation of their function, some heart diseases, low blood pressure, cerebrovascular insufficiency), ischemic heart disease, severe diabetes, systemic connective tissue diseases (including scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus) suppression of bone marrow hematopoiesis, dehydration (eg, against diarrhea and vomiting), a lack of sodium in the body (for example, salt-free diet), in old age.

During treatment diroton not recommended to drink alcohol, they can enhance the action of the drug and cause a sharp drop in blood pressure. Nor can operate a motor vehicle and to carry out other activities that require coordination of movements.

 Diroton - instruction: how to use ACE inhibitors

Side effects and overdose dirotona

Diroton may cause the following side effects:

  • from respiratory - compulsive dry cough, respiratory disorders;
  • from circulation - a sharp decrease in blood pressure (including the fast rising), heart pain Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor  Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor
 , Acceleration or slowing of the heart rate, symptoms of heart failure, heart block, myocardial infarction;
  • the part of the digestive system - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms  Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
 , Dry mouth, disorders of the pancreas and liver;
  • the nervous system - dizziness, headache, irritability, impaired concentration, drowsiness, seizure;
  • genitourinary - renal dysfunction, decreased potency;
  • allergic reactions - angioedema, anaphylactic shock.
  • Other - joint pain Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?  Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?
   and muscle pain, fever, exacerbation of gout, hair loss.

Overdose dirotona all causes increased side effects. It is necessary to wash out the stomach, take activated UHL, put the patient in a horizontal position with raised legs and call an ambulance.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • diroton