Myocardial infarction - the terrible diagnosis - Types

July 26, 2009

  • Myocardial infarction - the most formidable diagnosis
  • Kinds

Types of heart attacks

Myocardial infarction - a serious illness, which all fear. But absolutely healthy heart attacks do not happen, so we need to promptly identify and treat heart disease, especially if they are accompanied by pain in the heart. And as the pain in my heart are different, only a doctor can tell whether they threaten the patient's life. Myocardial infarction occurs in acute coronary violation (which supplies blood to the heart muscle) circulation. If a coronary artery spasm lasts a long time, then it dies of the heart muscle, which is suitable for this artery, so the more the artery, the greater part of the heart muscle it supplies oxygen and nutrients and the more extensive infarction is in violation of its terrain.

Myocardial infarction can be macrofocal and melkoochagovogo. Depending on the extent of necrosis (necrosis) in wall thickness are the following forms of myocardial infarction:

  • transmural (necrosis extends through the entire thickness of the heart muscle and adjacent outer and inner lining of the heart);
  • intramural (necrosis develops within the heart muscle);
  • subepicardial (myocardial necrosis in the layer adjacent to the outer shell of the heart - pericardium);
  • subendocardial (myocardial necrosis in the layer adjacent to the inner shell of the heart - the endocardium).

In most cases of myocardial infarction in men older than 50 years, but there are cases of development and 30 years of age and younger. In women under 60 years it occurs almost three times less than that of men, then the difference is reduced.

 Forms | Myocardial infarction - the most formidable diagnosis

Macrofocal myocardial infarction

Typical for myocardial infarction involves five periods: prodromal, acute, acute, subacute, and after infarct.

Prodromal period or period of precursors (PIS) lasts from a few hours to a month. By precursors include appearing for the first time signs of angina Symptoms of angina - chest discomfort  Symptoms of angina - chest discomfort
   or acceleration, elongation, and increased severity of existing angina attacks.

Acute period - the time between the onset of severe ischemia infarction area and the appearance of signs of its necrosis. It occupies the period from half an hour to two hours and is characterized by episodes of severe pain, which is localized in the chest, at least - in other areas of the chest and in the stomach. Pain can give to his left arm, back, jaw, has a constricting, oppressive character. The pain is accompanied by sharply there is a sharp general weakness, often nausea, vomiting. In the first minutes or hours usually marked by high blood pressure, then it drops sharply.

Acute period during which the image portion myocardial necrosis, lasts 2 to 10 days, sometimes - longer. During this period, pain in the heart Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor  Pain in the heart - always consult a doctor
   It decreases or disappears altogether. During this period may appear cardiac arrhythmias, rise the temperature to 38˚ or higher.

Subacute period during which completes the initial processes of formation of scar necrosis at the site is completed by the end of 4-5 weeks from the onset of the disease (not counting the prodromal period). Heart pain is usually absent, gradually increased blood pressure, decreased cardiac arrhythmias.

Postinfarction period lasts 3-6 months after the formation of necrosis. At this time, the density of the scar, and the myocardium becomes accustomed to the new conditions of work. This results in a compensatory increase in mass of the heart muscle are not infarcted.

 Forms | Myocardial infarction - the most formidable diagnosis

Small focal myocardial infarction

Frequency during melkoochagovogo myocardial infarction is less pronounced than in macrofocal. Heart pain in this form of less severe and prolonged. Prolonged pain could be due to the formation of additional foci of necrosis. Arrhythmias and sudden drop in blood pressure Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?  Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?
   and rarer.

 Forms | Myocardial infarction - the most formidable diagnosis

Atypical forms of myocardial infarction

In some cases, completely absent heart pain. The disease may begin with an acute heart failure Heart failure - when the heart is unable to cope with the work  Heart failure - when the heart is unable to cope with the work
 , For example, pulmonary edema: stagnation in the blood vessels of the lungs causing propotevanie fluid into the lungs and the person starts to choke.

Sometimes myocardial infarction begins with cardiac arrhythmias (such as atrial fibrillation, when the heart beats irregularly and often). Often the beginning of the disease in the form of general weakness and malaise, and in such cases, myocardial infarction, or its effects may be accidental finding on an electrocardiogram.

 Forms | Myocardial infarction - the most formidable diagnosis


Diagnosis of myocardial infarction based on characteristic symptoms and ECG data, which are clearly visible characteristic changes from the beginning of myocardial infarction. Nevertheless, the clinical signs are basic, because there are ECG-negative form of the disease, when this study revealed signs of myocardial miokardane.

Additional methods of research - laboratory (blood revealed signs of inflammation and tissue decay).

 Forms | Myocardial infarction - the most formidable diagnosis


Treatment of patients with myocardial infarction is made up of the earliest possible admission to the hospital, strict bed rest, pain relief in the heart, preventing the formation of clots in blood vessels, efforts to restore areas of the heart muscle adjacent to the necrotic zone, and treatment of complications of the disease. The recovery period is attached physiotherapy.

Remember, long sharp pain in my heart requires immediate medical attention!

  Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • heart attack

Hypertension - when suffering heart and brain - What is hypertension

January 28, 2010

  • Hypertension - when suffering heart and brain
  • What is hypertension

What is hypertension

Hypertension - this increase in blood pressure in the arteries of the systemic circulation that brings arterial blood to distant organs and tissues. Blood pressure is generated after contraction of the left ventricle, with blood is ejected into the aorta and moves further towards the organs and tissues of the body, acting in an increasingly smaller arteries. Thus, the blood pressure value depends on the value of cardiac output (the volume of blood in the vessels) and the degree of resistance to blood flow of the arterial walls.

Hypertension can be primary and secondary, which is one of the symptoms of a disease, such as kidney disease.

Causes of primary hypertension is still not well established, but suggest that they may be different (emotional stress, genetic predisposition, obesity, poor diet, etc.).

By the nature of increase in blood pressure are three forms of hypertension:

  • systolic - increasing the upper (systolic) blood pressure at normal or reduced lower (diastolic) blood pressure; such a state is observed with an increase in stroke volume and cardiac output;
  • systolic and diastolic - systolic and diastolic blood pressure, this is usually evidenced by an increase in stroke volume, and a high resistance to blood flow of vessels;
  • diastolic - increasing only diastolic blood pressure due to an increase in total peripheral resistance to blood flow while reducing the work of the left ventricle of the heart.

When hypertension disrupted the internal organs, especially the heart suffers. The increased load on the heart helps to ensure that the heart muscle increases in volume, and therefore requires increased blood supply. Coronary vessels (they feed the heart muscle) is not always cope with the stress that contributes to the development of myocardial infarction. If the heart muscle is unable to cope with the task of pumping blood in the systemic circulation blood stasis occurs - a condition called heart failure.

The second body, which suffers no less than the heart - a brain - insufficient blood supply violates his work and may cause a stroke.

Suffer and kidney tissue of poorly supplied with nutrients and oxygen, which is why the kidneys can not cope with its function of excretion of toxic products of metabolism - comes chronic renal failure Chronic renal failure - what to do and how to be?  Chronic renal failure - what to do and how to be?

 What is hypertension | Hypertension - when suffering heart and brain

Symptoms of hypertension

Home hypertension imperceptible, sometimes the patient does not even know about the disease, the detection of high blood pressure is a random finding. Gradually the patients' complaints of palpitations, shortness of breath, pain in the heart. With long flowing disease detected changes in blood vessels in the fundus (narrow arteries and veins are dilated congestive) - is one of the objective evidence of vascular disorders that can cause acute or persistent blurred vision. There are also a headache, dizziness - symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the brain.

Hypertension can be complicated by severe disorders of cerebral circulation, myocardial infarction, cardiac and renal failure Kidney failure - when treatment is vital  Kidney failure - when treatment is vital

 What is hypertension | Hypertension - when suffering heart and brain

Hypertensive crisis

In some cases, hypertension occurs with hypertensive crises - sudden sharp increase in blood pressure, which is accompanied by cerebral ischemia (severe headache, dizziness Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet  Dizziness - if the ground is slipping from under his feet
 , Double vision, tinnitus, nausea and vomiting) or cardiac symptoms as chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, disruption of the heart, etc. This condition is accompanied by a sense of fear and a sense of lack of air. Man excited (or, alternatively, suppressed), his hands trembling, shivering, sweating. This crisis lasts from a few minutes to several hours. Uncomplicated crises are like without a trace, complicated ends complications in the internal organs (myocardial infarction, stroke, etc.).

 What is hypertension | Hypertension - when suffering heart and brain

Diagnosis of hypertension

Patients with hypertension should be fully examined in order to prevent secondary origin of the disease (in the background of some other disease), as well as find out whether complications of internal organs.

Research is being conducted: ECG (identify the different disorders of the heart), echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart - to be confirmed condition of the walls of the heart), X-ray and ultrasound of the arteries. We also investigate the condition of the kidneys, and thyroid The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones  The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
 , A disease that can cause increased blood pressure. The blood is required to check the level of cholesterol and fat-protein complexes), to detect signs of atherosclerosis.

 What is hypertension | Hypertension - when suffering heart and brain

Treatment of hypertension

The initial stages of the disease requires not only medical treatment, many lifestyle changes:

  • reduction of excess weight;
  • non-greasy, fried, sweet, sweet and salty foods;
  • regular moderate physical activity;
  • elimination of various mental exertion and stress - to this end, patients received anti-anxiety medication.

In the deeper stages of the disease treatment drug is assigned that depends on what has been detected in the patient during the examination.