- Symptoms of hypertension: how to recognize high blood pressure
What is hypertension (hypertension) and why it occurs
Arterial hypertension (hypertension) - a rise in blood pressure in the arteries due to either an increase in arterial blood flow resistance, or an increase in cardiac output, or a combination of these factors. Prolonged or significant hypertension produces a pathological condition manifested overload and hypertrophy (increase in the volume of the heart muscle) of the heart and the various changes in all organs and systems.
Hypertension may occur on a whole range of factors: genetic predisposition, high weight, high emotional stress, malnutrition, and so on.
How is hypertension
First manifestation of hypertension is high blood pressure (BP). The absence of other signs of the disease often leads to the fact that in some patients it is not detected for a long time.
However, in some patients at the early stages of the disease there are some complaints. In the later stages of the complaints of patients complications of hypertension are often determined by the heart, kidneys and so on. Often there are short-term (from several hours to several days) exacerbation - hypertensive crises.
During the staging of hypertension differs in increased blood pressure and signs of circulatory disorders in different organs. In total there are three stages of hypertension.
Symptoms of early stage hypertension
There is the initial stage of the disease or predgipertenzivnaya when blood pressure is normal and increases only in the moment of stress
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Under the influence of cold, pain and some other external stimuli. To normal levels of blood pressure returned on their own. Vascular crises occur in this stage is rare. Sometimes, in this step there is narrowing of the arteries and veins fundus. Any changes in the heart or other internal organs available.
At this stage there are such complaints as fatigue, irritability
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Insomnia, weakness, dizziness,
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, Palpitations, morning headaches such as "heavy head", worse in a horizontal position, but decreases after the walk.
Symptoms of deepening
At some point, it becomes permanently elevated blood pressure, but the level of his first unstable. Under the influence of gentle treatment (regular rest, restful sleep
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, The rational organization of labor, avoidance of emotional stress and so on) BP may return to normal for a while. But often there are hypertensive crises, develop an increase in the left ventricle.
With further development of the disease there is a significant and sustained increase in blood pressure, which is necessary to reduce the special treatment. Vascular crises are typically more severe, often seen accompanying manifestations of atherosclerosis (angina, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents, and so on). In this phase of the disease can be observed dystrophic (due to malnutrition) changes in internal organs - brain, heart and kidneys.
Symptoms final step
At the beginning of this stage, blood pressure increased steadily and significantly, reducing the need for its use of potent drugs. There are signs of declining kidney function and heart disorders from the brain in the form of memory loss, impaired concentration, and so on. But the function of the internal organs first broken mild.
In the second half of this stage formed severe disorders of the heart, kidneys and brain.
Symptoms of a hypertensive crisis
Hypertensive crises can arise at any stage of hypertension and often its only manifestation. So, in the early stages of the disease crises are the result of the release of adrenaline into the bloodstream, so in addition to improving blood pressure, they proceed with such characteristic symptoms as tremors throughout the body, palpitations, headache. Such crises last few minutes at most - a few hours. This increases blood pressure in the not too much, and after the crisis copious notes.
The crisis in the late stages of the disease most often occurs as a result of the release of norepinephrine. This rise in blood pressure and there is a range of symptoms of a crisis. They can be of three types: heart (tachycardia and shortness of breath, elevated blood pressure to 220/120 mm Hg), without local brain disorders of the nervous system (blood pressure above 170/110 mmHg, headache, nausea , vomiting, lethargy), and local brain disorders of the nervous system (numbness, tingling throughout the body, blurred vision or foresight in the eyes, double vision objects, speech, gait change, and so on).
But the worst kind of hypertensive crisis - generalized, in which there is a combination of all three previous types. Nausea, vomiting, headache, disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system, visual disturbances, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmias.
Patients with hypertension should observe the regime of the day, to eat right and to exercise all the prescribing physician.