- Tachycardia - the body to the limit?
- Call a doctor
- Diagnosis and treatment of supraventricular tachycardia
- Non-drug treatment
Tachycardia - a heart rate higher than normal. In a healthy adult at rest, the heart rate is 60 to 100 beats per minute. Body controls the heart rate, sending electrical signals to the heart tissue. Tachycardia occurs when due any anomalies electrical signals become too frequent.
In some cases, the tachycardia is no particular symptoms or complications. However, it can seriously disrupt the normal functioning of the heart, increase the risk of stroke, cardiac arrest and death.
When the heart beats too often disturbed blood circulation and, consequently, organs and tissues of the organism do not receive sufficient oxygen. This, in turn, can cause such symptoms of tachycardia as dizziness, shortness of breath, rapid pulse, palpitations, chest pain and fainting.
If tachycardia is asymptomatic, it can be detected only after medical examination or with the help of an electrocardiogram.
Factors that may cause tachycardia
- Damage to the heart muscle as a result of heart disease
- Congenital anomalies of the electrical
- High blood pressure
- Alcohol abuse
- Abuse of caffeinated beverages
- Taking certain medications
- Abuse of illicit drugs, has a stimulating effect, such as cocaine
- Electrolyte imbalance, mineral substances that ensure the normal conduction of electrical signals
- Overactive thyroid
The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
Quite often the exact cause tachycardia is not possible.
The structure of the heart and the mechanism of tachycardia
The heart consists of four chambers - two upper (atria) and two lower (ventricles). Heart rate is controlled by a natural pacemaker - the sinus node, which is located in the right upper chamber. From the sinus node receives electrical impulses from which normally starts each heartbeat. From there the impulse enters the atria, causing the atria muscle contraction, due to which the blood is pumped into the ventricles. The electric pulse, meanwhile, gets to antrioventrikulyarny node (AV node) - normally this is the only way in which the impulse can travel from the atria to the ventricles.
Before I get into the ventricles, an electric pulse is slowed down in the AV node. This forms a short delay, during which the ventricles are filled with blood. When the pulse finally reaches the ventricular muscle, they are reduced, and the blood enters the lungs to other parts of the body.
The types of tachycardia
Atrial fibrillation - this increase in heart rate caused by chaotic electrical impulses in the atria. In the same manner chaotic impulses come to the AV node, causing irregular and too frequent ventricular contraction. Atrial fibrillation may be temporary, but in some cases it does not go without a thorough treatment. As a rule, this violation is associated with structural abnormalities of the heart and related diseases such as heart disease and high blood pressure. This may be caused by factors such as hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism: increased secretion of thyroid hormone
, Disruption of the heart valve and alcohol abuse.
Atrial flutter - it is very fast atrial contraction. Muscles are reduced at high speed and thus weak, which is why the ventricles and may start to fall more often than usual. Episodic atrial flutter may go without treatment. Often, the same person is observed as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter and. But most of the tachycardia occurs in various lesions of the cardiovascular system. This may be rheumatism, myocarditis, valvular heart disease, myocardial infarction, and so on.
There are sinus tachycardia due to increased activity of nerve sinus node (the main source of electrical impulses that form the heart rhythm is normal), and ectopic (outside the power of rhythm is the sinus node in the atria or the ventricles) tachycardia.
Ectopic tachycardia usually occurs in the form of attacks (paroxysms) and is called paroxysmal tachycardia. If the source of ectopic rhythm is in the atrium, such a supraventricular tachycardia is called, and if in the ventricular - ventricular.
Complications tachycardia vary in severity depending upon such factors as the type of tachycardia, the frequency beats per minute and the duration of the attack and the presence of other heart diseases. Tahikardyai may have the following complications:
- The formation of thrombi (blood clots), which can cause a stroke or heart attack;
- The inability of the heart to pump enough blood (heart failure);
- Frequent fainting;
- Sudden death, but usually only occurs when the ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation.
- When to see a doctor
- Several diseases can cause symptoms of heart palpitations and tachycardia
Symptoms of tachycardia: the timely detection
So it is very important to promptly make an accurate diagnosis and receive appropriate treatment. Consult your doctor if you experience any symptoms of tachycardia.
- If you faint, shortness of breath or chest pain that lasts a few minutes, as soon as possible, seek emergency care.
The main objectives of the treatment of patients with tachycardia are made to slow the rapid heartbeat, prevent the occurrence of episodes of the disease in the future, and to minimize possible complications.
Normalization of heart
Heart palpitations can be normalized by itself, or with the help of simple movements. However, some patients still need medicine or special medical procedures.
- Vagal maneuvers. Your doctor may recommend you with an increase in heart rate to perform specific actions called vagal maneuvers. They affect the vagus nerve, which helps regulate the heartbeat. Typically, patients are advised to cough, squat torso slightly forward and apply ice to the face.
- Medications. If vagal maneuvers do not help to cope with palpitation, for the normalization of heart rate may need an injection of the drug flecainide. The injection should be doing specialist. Sometimes doctors prescribe antiarrhythmic drugs in tablets, such as flecainide (Tambocor) or propafenone (Rythmol). They should be taken when an attack of tachycardia can not be removed by means of vagal maneuvers.
- Cardioversion. In the course of this procedure on the heart muscle affected by electrocution, which helps to restore normal heart rhythm. Cardioversion is used when a patient needs urgent help, or when other treatments are ineffective.
The following steps can help prevent attacks of tachycardia:
- Medication. Regular intake of antiarrhythmic drugs can help prevent repeat attacks of tachycardia. Patients may be administered, and other drugs - with antiarrhythmic drugs, or instead of - for example, a calcium channel blocker (diltiazem (Cardizem), verapamil), or beta-blockers such as metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol) and esmolol (Brevibloc).
- Pacemaker - a small device that is implanted on the skin. If a pacemaker detects an abnormal heart rhythm, it begins to produce electrical signals that help normalize the heartbeat.
- An implantable cardioverter defibrillator. If the patient's risk of life-threatening attacks of tachycardia, the doctor may recommend his implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). This device is the size of a mobile phone is implanted under the skin of the chest. ICD constantly monitors the heart rate, notes palpitations, and sends electrical discharges that cause a heartbeat to normal.
- Surgical intervention. In some cases, for the treatment of tachycardia requires open-heart surgery. Sometimes surgery is performed under the name "labyrinth": on the heart muscle doing a few notches, forming a maze-like pattern, and then to their place formed scar tissue. Because scar tissue does not conduct electrical signals, electrical impulses after operations, which are the causes of some types of tachycardia will no longer cause an increase in heart rate. Surgery is usually assigned only in cases where other treatments have not worked tachycardia.
Preventing blood clots
Some patients with tachycardia, increased risk of blood clots, which under certain circumstances can cause a stroke or heart attack. In such cases, a doctor may prescribe prophylactic blood-thinning drugs such as dabigatran (Pradaxa) or warfarin
Warfarin - indirect anticoagulants
Treatment of the underlying disease
Sometimes the cause of tachycardia is another disease - it can be, for example, some heart disease or hyperthyroidism. Treatment of these diseases will reduce the risk of tachycardia episodes in the future.