Methods of contraception: strengths and weaknesses

April 24, 2011

 methods of contraception
 Currently, there is a huge choice of contraceptive methods. They allow not only to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancy, but also to preserve the reproductive health of women, to later give birth to a healthy and desired child. But in order to properly use the various contraceptive methods, need to know their strengths and weaknesses, as well as the percentage of effectiveness and how they operate. Based on these data, you can choose the most convenient and reliable method of contraception for every woman.


Methods of contraception

The essence of contraception is to prevent fertilization by sperm mature. Contraception can be both conservative and operative, as well as female or male. There are several basic types of contraception:

  • biological methods;
  • barrier methods;
  • Chemical protection against pregnancy;
  • hormonal contraceptives (tablets, injections, patches);
  • surgical contraception;
  • intrauterine contraception;
  • coitus interruptus.


Hormonal contraceptives

Hormonal methods of contraception are pill (mini-pill and combined oral contraceptives), injections and patches. These methods are based on the action of contraceptive hormones, which are part of these means. They suppress ovulation Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?  Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?
   and cause thickening of the cervical mucus than impede the penetration of sperm into the uterus. Combination drugs are taken for three weeks, followed by a seven-day break. Mini-pill taken continuously, without interruption, and the package contains 28 tablets. Injection (Depo-Provera) are held once in three months. A contraceptive patch change during the menstrual cycle once a week (three times), and then also required a week's break. Hormonal methods of contraception are effective (85-90%).


Chemical methods of contraception

This group of methods include various spermicides, which are presented in the form of suppositories, creams, gels or ointments. Spermicides are able to inactivate sperm, preventing them from entering the uterus and kill the germs that cause various diseases, sexually transmitted diseases. Apply them usually a few minutes before the sexual act (which is not very convenient), but their effectiveness does not exceed 60-70%. Chemical contraception for couples rarely have sex.


Barrier methods of contraception

For barrier methods include male (condoms) and women (cervical caps) contraceptives. Remarkably, not only protects against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections but are convenient for people who have multiple sex partners. The disadvantage of barrier contraception is the sudden rupture of a condom or cap bias. Efficiency of about 80% of condoms, cervical caps - 90%.


Biological methods of contraception

Such methods include the calendar method and the measurement of rectal temperature. As he and another method of birth control does not have sufficient contraceptive effect and is effective only in 50-60% of cases. Keeping ovulation calendar allows the calculation of "dangerous" days, and the temperature method is based on measuring the rectal temperature to determine the time of ovulation (the temperature rise above 37 degrees, and a couple of days after the decline were "dangerous" days).


Intrauterine contraception

This method is based on the introduction into the uterus of an intrauterine device. Spiral lead to hypertonus Gipertonus: a sign of the disease  Gipertonus: a sign of the disease
   uterine contraction causes anastaltic pipe injures endometrium and promotes aseptic inflammation that results in the disruption of aborting and implantation of a fertilized egg. Intrauterine ideal parous women with single and regular sexual partner. The effectiveness of intrauterine contraception is 80-90%.


Surgical sterilization

This is a permanent method of contraception Contraceptive Methods: Ten myths about contraception in the mirror of facts  Contraceptive Methods: Ten myths about contraception in the mirror of facts
   and it is held by both women and men. Women usually surgical sterilization is tubal ligation, and men - in the seminal duct ligation. But recently, due to the widespread use of gisteroskpii, there was the so-called reversible surgical sterilization. The gist of it is to block the mouth of the fallopian tubes. The effectiveness of surgical sterilization Sterilization - may be temporarily  Sterilization - may be temporarily

Anna Sozinova

Article Tags:
  • methods of contraception

Pelleted abortion is not as easy as it seems

October 28, 2010

 tableted abortion
 In no case should abortion - a procedure that could threaten the health and lives of women. Even despite the fact that almost all cases of abortion in health facilities end safely, no one dares to say with absolute certainty that the particular abortion will take place without complications.

 Pelleted abortion is not as easy as it seems

What is abortion and types

Induced abortion - is abortion in the first 28 weeks, when the fetus is still viable. Induced abortion is made in a medical institution, medical called, is a medical institution - criminal. The name itself says that the latter type of abortion is illegal. Criminal abortion - is one of the causes of death and infertility among young women.

Every abortion is not held to the body without a trace, since, firstly, the sharp termination of pregnancy is often a persistent violation of hormonal women, and secondly - traumatize the uterine wall. Therefore, abortion (especially if it was the first pregnancy) often comes infertility.

All medical abortion can be divided into instrumental (removal of the fetus by means of scraping the uterus Curettage - how dangerous it is?  Curettage - how dangerous it is?
   special medical tool), vacuum abortion or mini-abortion (removal of the fetus from the uterus by means of vacuum suction) and tableted abortion.

Tablet abortion first began to do in the 80s of the last century after the release of the first drug in France for their production - mifepristone. Today, mifepristone produced by different pharmaceutical companies under such names as mifegin, mifepreks and penkrofton.

 Pelleted abortion is not as easy as it seems

The mechanism of action of mifepristone

Status of pregnancy is supported by female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone). Thus progesterone Progesterone - norm and pathology  Progesterone - norm and pathology
   during pregnancy plays a major role, as it was he who restrains the contractility of the muscles of the uterus. Without his influence muscles of the uterus to contract and expel beginning to fruit. It is at this particular action of progesterone and constructed mechanism of action of mifepristone, as it is a progesterone antagonist, i.e. blocking its action. And as reducing uterine muscles longer uncontained fetus is expelled from its cavity, that is going on abortion or abortion.

But that's not all the action of mifepristone: it increases the body's prostaglandins - biologically active substances that increase the contractile ability of the uterus. During the tablet abortion if a doctor sees that the uterine muscles are reduced enough, he may appoint a woman to the additional administration of prostaglandins.

 Pelleted abortion is not as easy as it seems

Indications and contraindications for pods abortion

Holding a tablet abortion is allowed for pregnancies up to 6 weeks.

Contraindications for tablet abortion are any inflammation in the pelvic area, menstrual disorders, tumors and hormonal diseases of the female genital organs, suspected ectopic pregnancy, the presence of scarring of the uterus (eg, after cesarean section), increased bleeding, anemia, disorders the kidneys, liver and the cardiovascular system and other serious diseases of internal organs, smoking in combination with age, approaching 40 years, prolonged use of glucocorticoid medications and anticoagulants (drugs that reduce rolling capacity of the blood).

 Pelleted abortion is not as easy as it seems

Tablet abortion procedure

Before the abortion tablet woman must pass the full examination for her contraindications for pregnancy termination (gynecological examination, laboratory tests, ultrasound). After that, an obstetrician-gynecologist antenatal woman explains how the procedure will take place and its possible complications, and that the woman should be doing at any given time.

Abortion procedure begins with the fact that the obstetrician-gynecologist gives her take a pill mifepristone. After that the woman is a time in the day hospital under medical supervision, and then goes home, where a few hours later she appeared spotting Spotting - it is important to rule out pathology  Spotting - it is important to rule out pathology
 . Next time (if the state is normal and there is no severe bleeding) woman attending antenatal clinics in 48 hours to check on the ultrasound, was removed from the uterus of the fertilized egg. If not, the doctor gives her pills to take prostaglandin and watching her condition in the day hospital for four hours. In the normal condition of the woman to let her go home and the next inspection is carried out in two weeks (held ultrasound to clarify completely removed if the fetus).

 Pelleted abortion is not as easy as it seems

What complications can occur after abortion tablet

During the tablet abortion may experience the following complications:

  • the appearance of weakness, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and sometimes - fever; this condition usually resolves itself;
  • appearance after mifepristone severe pain and bleeding (in which case you need to call an ambulance);
  • incomplete removal of the ovum - requires additional scraping tool Scraping - heavy and unsafe procedure  Scraping - heavy and unsafe procedure
   the uterine cavity.

Pelleted abortion - a lightweight form of abortion, however, it can also cause a number of complications.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • medical abortion