- Hepatitis A - do not forget to wash your hands!
Hepatitis A has been described by Hippocrates. Great contribution to the study of this disease introduced by military doctors in the 18-19 centuries. this disease even was called the Army of the disease. The fact that jaundice - an independent infectious disease for the first time suggested the famous Russian physician SP Botkin, in connection with which the disease is called infective hepatitis.
What is hepatitis A
Hepatitis A or infectious disease - an acute infectious viral disease characterized by intoxication and often occurring with jaundice. Hepatitis A usually has the characteristic symptoms, recovery ends and does not require special treatment. After the disease is formed lasting immunity, so repeat diseases is almost never. For the prevention of viral hepatitis
Viral hepatitis - Army disease
A vaccine available.
Possible outbreaks of the disease. It is believed that the first pandemic of the disease was in 1915-1923, and the second - in 1937-1945 years. Both pandemics were associated with world wars.
In tropical countries with poor sanitation incidence of hepatitis A is very high. Especially often are ill with hepatitis small children. By the age of ten, most children perebolevaet hepatitis A with the development of persistent immunity. The incidence of hepatitis A in countries with temperate climates, growing in the autumn-winter period.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a picornavirus family. It quickly (within five minutes) at boiling dies, but at room temperature in a dry environment persists week, and water up to several months, so the infection often spreads with water. In faeces hepatitis A virus is stored up to a month. The virus is enclosed in acid-resistant shell that allows it to infectious agents freely negotiate the acidic environment of the stomach.
How is hepatitis A
Hepatitis A virus is transmitted from food and water. The source of infection is a sick person who is isolated pathogens in the faeces. Especially dangerous in patients with mild and asymptomatic forms of the disease - it is they who are most often the source of infection. Microscopic particles of feces with dirty hands fall on various products or water. Therefore hepatitis
Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
And they called the disease of dirty hands. Most hepatitis A sick people who were on holiday in hot countries such as India, Vietnam, the countries of Central Asia, Africa and Latin America.
Ways of transmission of hepatitis A - food and water. Often, these two paths are interconnected. For example, more and more often ill with hepatitis A after eating raw shellfish. Traditionally, you can get infected when consuming unwashed vegetables and fruits. There is also the possibility of transmission through blood, including during sex, especially anal-genital, as this is often damaged rectal mucosa.
After ingestion of hepatitis A virus-contaminated water or food of different infectious agents penetrate into the intestine, and then absorbed into the bloodstream to the liver and introduced into its cell. Cells of the immune system
The immune system - how it works?
recognizing virus-infected human liver cells and destroy them, which leads to the development of hepatitis and decrease in liver function.
Diagnosis of hepatitis A
The diagnosis of hepatitis A is set on the basis of epidemiological history (the doctor finds out where the man had been in the past 6 weeks, what to eat, what water to drink, no contact with any sick with hepatitis, did not attend any tropical countries, and so on), and the characteristic symptoms of the disease.
A presumptive diagnosis should be confirmed by laboratory data - RNA detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) by PCR (it is found in the feces of sick for about a week before the first symptoms of hepatitis and in the early days of the disease, but may also be released during the time of illness) antibodies to this virus class M immunoglobulin (anti-HAV-IgM - they appear in the last 5-10 days incubation period, and still be detected for 6-7 months from the onset) and antibody class immunoglobulin G (anti-HAV-IgG - appear with 3-4 weeks of disease and persist throughout life, providing lifelong immunity).
The consequences of hepatitis A
The most serious consequences of hepatitis A occur in fulminant forms of the disease. Quick hepatic necrosis can result in the death of a patient or a significant reduction in its function as dead hepatocytes are replaced by connective tissue.
After a period of convalescence, the patient a few months may be concerned about lethargy, weakness, decreased performance, and sometimes abdominal pain
Abdominal pain: Types and Symptoms
undefined character, flatulence, digestive disorders such as constipation alternating with diarrhea, and so on. But gradually it all goes.
But most of viral hepatitis A ends without any consequences in 4-6 weeks, leaving a life-long immunity. Hard to carry the disease are small children, the elderly and people suffering from any chronic diseases.