Toxic hepatitis - the impact of harmful substances on the liver

March 10, 2014

  • Toxic hepatitis - the impact of harmful substances on the liver
  • Symptoms

 toxic hepatitis
 Toxic hepatitis often develops in long-term effects on the liver cells of alcohol, drugs or poisons in the industrial production. No less common cause of toxic hepatitis are poisons of vegetable origin, such as poison pale toadstool.


Causes of toxic hepatitis

Toxic hepatitis - an acute or chronic inflammatory-dystrophic diseases of the liver, due to the growing impact of a number of harmful toxic substances to the liver internal or external origin.

The causes of toxic hepatitis can be different. Toxic substances that affect the liver may be internal (endogenous) or external (exogenous) origin. Thus, the toxins formed as burns, severe infections, endogenous call, they can be toxic to the liver, and this is called hepatitis reactive or secondary.

The action of exogenous toxins, coming from outside the body primarily through the gastrointestinal tract develop chronic hepatitis. The most common toxic hepatitis caused by drugs with hepatotoxic, alcohol (chronic alcoholic hepatitis), industrial and plant poisons. All of these toxic substances have a direct detrimental effect on the liver cells (hepatocytes).

The toxic drug-induced hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
   may develop when taking such drugs as tetracycline antibiotics, paracetamol, anti-TB drugs, sulfonamides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as diclofenac Diclofenac - relieve inflammation and pain  Diclofenac - relieve inflammation and pain
 , Indomethacin, etc.), antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole), hormonal contraceptives, which include estrogens, etc. Hepatotoxic amplifies the action of drugs in the elderly and if the patient already has some liver disease.

Very often toxic effects on liver cells has alcohol. Evolving with the alcoholic hepatitis is called. Alcoholic hepatitis is toxic due to a direct toxic effect on the liver cells alcohol metabolite - acetaldehyde, which is formed in the liver during alcohol processing. Under the influence of acetaldehyde in liver impaired cellular metabolism and hepatocytes partially or completely loses its function. Drink and its metabolites cause a chain of chemical reactions in the body, leading to disruption of the cells proceeds in the liver and oxygen destruction (necrosis). If the person at the same time uses a lot of spirits, it can directly lead to necrosis of hepatocytes. Battered liver cells are replaced by connective tissue cells and the liver gradually loses its function.


Development of the disease

Depending on the individual toxic hepatitis begins to develop within one to two years of systematic use of alcoholic beverages. The first years of hepatitis goes unnoticed and the person is usually unaware of its presence. But in three - five years of the first signs of the disease, and in a few years can seamlessly formed cirrhosis. Alcohol toxic hepatitis can wear a benign non-progressive (persistent) or active progressive nature.

Quite often, especially in the warmer months, the reason for the development of toxic hepatitis are vegetable poisons. First of all, it's poison mushrooms, for example, pale grebe, which is sometimes mistaken for forest mushrooms. Hepatotoxicity have some weeds such as ragwort and bitterling. Many vegetable poisons have a direct toxic effect on the liver cells, which leads to its severe lesions including necrosis and extensive areas of human death.

Industrial poisons can also cause the development of toxic hepatitis, but this kind of liver disease is much rarer. Under the influence of single large doses of industrial poisons may develop acute toxic hepatitis, and the systematic exposure to small doses - chronic. For industrial poisons with hepatotoxic include phosphorus, arsenic, acetaldehyde (it is used for the production of acetic acid), some components of the oil, phenols, pesticides and insecticides (substances that are used in agriculture to control weeds and insects).

Regidron - instruction: how the drug helps

November 25, 2012

 rehydron guide
 Regidron - a drug replenish fluids and salts in their loss during diarrhea (diarrhea). Application rehydron reduces toxicity in intestinal infections and to avoid dehydration, which is the most serious complication of intestinal infections.

 Regidron - instruction: how the drug helps

The mechanism of action rehydron

Regidron - a drug for rehydration (restoration of water-salt balance) and detoxification (removing the symptoms of intoxication) for oral administration. Rehydron produced in powder form in sachets. Each pack contains 18, 9 g of active principle. Composition rehydron 3, 5 g sodium chloride, 2, 9 g of sodium citrate, 2, 5 g of potassium chloride, 10, 0 g of glucose anhydride Glucose: The energy source  Glucose: The energy source
   (manufacturer - the pharmaceutical company Orion Corporation, Finland).

The mechanism of action rehydron based on the fact that the large loss of fluids and salts, it restores impaired water-salt and acid balance in the body, because it contains the basic salts, which are displayed along with loose stools. Glucose, which is also contained in rehydron - a source of energy, which helps the absorption of salts. Assimilation of citrate salts, and also contributes to the restoration of normal acidity.

Osmolarity rehydron (total concentration of all dissolved species) is equal to 260 mOsm / l pH (acidity) - 8 2. This small numbers osmolarity, but is now considered that solutions with low osmolarity most effective for recovery of fluid loss. In order to prevent the formation of edema in rehydron Regidron - will help restore the water-salt balance  Regidron - will help restore the water-salt balance
   there are not so many salts of sodium and potassium, the loss of which is fraught with serious complications with the cardiovascular system, rehydron high enough.

 Regidron - instruction: how the drug helps

Indications and contraindications

Regidron appoint:

  • intestinal infections, which are accompanied by small and medium-sized fluid loss;
  • with diarrhea in children of any origin, accompanied by mild to moderate fluid loss;
  • by overheating, sweating sopovozhdayuschimsya violation of water-salt balance;
  • when sweating associated with heavy physical exertion.

Contraindications for use rehydron:

  • severe kidney disease in violation of their functions;
  • diabetes Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease  Diabetes - threatening and incurable disease
   1st (insulin-dependent) and 2nd (insulin-dependent) type;
  • bowel obstruction;
  • if the patient has impaired consciousness;
  • if you are hypersensitive to the drug.

Regidron can apply to children of any age, and pregnant women and nursing mothers.

 Regidron - instruction: how the drug helps

How to cook and take rehydron

Prepare the solution and take rehydron should be strictly in accordance with the instructions. It is impossible to make more concentrated solutions, which may result in overdose.

To prepare the solution concentration desired powder contained in a sachet is to be dissolved in a liter of freshly boiled and cooled water. The finished solution can be used during the day, provided that it will be stored in the refrigerator.

Regidron indicated for small and medium-sized fluid loss. With significant losses saline solutions are administered intravenously. In order to assess the degree of fluid loss, before starting treatment the patient weighed (this is especially true for children, who can very quickly lose the liquid). Regidron taken orally in an amount twice the fluid loss (based on weighing). To this solution can not add anything, including sugar.

 Regidron - instruction: how the drug helps

Side effects and overdose

Side effects rehydron known only to allergic reactions, which are very rare.

In overdose rehydron increased concentration of sodium in the blood can cause symptoms such as weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, impaired consciousness (even coma), respiratory disorders. If the kidney function can occur disturbance of acid balance and cause respiratory disorders and seizures.

If rehydron used in patients with renal excretion of potassium salts, may develop high content of potassium in the blood, which can manifest itself in the form of sensory disturbances and paralysis of limbs, itching, confusion, fall in blood pressure Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?  Blood pressure - dangerous if his swing?
 , Heart attacks, and even cardiac arrest, which may occur suddenly, among the total well-being.

When symptoms of overdose rehydron patient hospitalized since the restoration of water-salt balance in this case should be carried out under constant medical supervision.

Regidron - a quality and sufficient safety of drugs which, however, it is best to take on prescription.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • rehydron