Gall bladder: structure and functions - Structure and work of the Authority

May 1, 2011

  • Gall bladder: structure and function
  • The structure and operation of the body

How is the gallbladder

Gallbladder - an organ of the digestive system, having the shape of a small bag in which an accumulation of bile and increase its concentration of which is carried out periodically flow of bile into the common bile duct and duodenum.

The gallbladder is located on the inner surface of the liver between her shares. He usually has a pear-shaped, rarely conical shape. At various disorders of the gallbladder shape may change and become like an hourglass, a fishing hook.

The length of the gallbladder is in the range 5-14 cm, with an average of 6-10 cm, width up to 2, 5-4 cm, capacity - 30-70 ml. Gallbladder wall is easily extensible, it can hold up to 200 ml of fluid. As the size and capacity of the gallbladder may vary significantly in various diseases.

The gallbladder distinguish the bottom (the widest part facing anteriorly, and reaches the front edge of the liver and sometimes protruding from it), the body (the middle portion located between the bottom and the neck) and neck - neck of the gallbladder is located in the hepatic fossa and Rollovers in the cystic duct. Sometimes the cervix forms one or two protrusions. Move the body in the neck of the gallbladder occurs under acute or obtuse angle.

Identify two of the gallbladder wall: the top, adjacent to the lower surface of the liver and separated from it by a layer of loose connective tissue and a lower free facing the abdominal cavity and adjacent to the exit from the stomach and duodenum. Fundus adjoins the transverse colon (large intestine department which transversely crosses the abdominal cavity).

 The structure and operation of bodies | Gall bladder: structure and function

The structure of the fabric of the gallbladder

Gallbladder wall is composed of three layers: the mucosa (inner), muscle (middle) and connective tissue (outer). The bottom wall of the gall bladder is covered even the serous membrane. The thickness of the gallbladder wall is 1, 5-2 mm.

Gallbladder mucosa has many folds. One of them walking the spiral, in the neck, called the valve heister and together with bundles of smooth muscle fibers of the tunica forms the so-called sphincter Lyutkensa. Multiple protrusions of the mucous membrane between the muscle bundles called crypts. Between bundles of muscle fibers and connective tissue lie tubular channels not communicating with the cavity of the bladder, which is delayed infection. In these channels, sometimes there are abscesses (abscesses, encapsulated).

The muscular coat gallbladder consists of fibers arranged in different directions. Coupling shell presented dense fibrous tissue bundles consisting of elastic and collagen fibers.

 The structure and operation of bodies | Gall bladder: structure and function

How does the gall bladder

The movement of bile biliary pathways is influenced by pressure secretion produced by the liver. If this pressure is not present, the bile into the gallbladder does not arrive. The flow of bile in the gallbladder is also dependent on the degree of contraction of the muscles of the bile ducts and by muscle contraction of the gallbladder. There are three types of movements of the gallbladder:

  • rhythmic movement - up to three to six times per minute in the fasting state of a person;
  • worm-like (peristaltic) motion of varying intensity;
  • reductions due to prolonged (tonic) contraction of the muscles that provide long pronounced increase in intravesical pressure.

Postprandial start gallbladder contraction in the bottom and the body while expanding the neck. Then comes a decrease in the total bubble, its pressure increases, and released into the bile portion of the common bile duct, after which the volume of the gallbladder is reduced dramatically. The activity of the gall bladder of a healthy person is adapted to the different conditions of the digestive system.

Gallbladder shortens if a lot of fat in the diet. If, however, a little fat, the gallbladder contracts and short-lived, reducing end before complete emptying of the stomach.

Employment gallbladder is under control of the central nervous system. When eating the central nervous system gives a command to the secretion of bile and gallbladder movement, which then increasingly intensified reflex influences from the nerve endings of the mouth, stomach and upper intestine.

Gall bladder - is not just a reservoir which drains bile, its main feature is that it regulates and maintains the constant pressure of bile in the biliary tract.

Galina Romanenko

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  • gall bladder

Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet - Absorbent drugs

February 4, 2010

  • Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet
  • Absorbent drugs

Absorbent drugs

Absorbent means (adsorbents) are thin inert powdered substances not soluble in water and does not irritate the tissue. When applied to the skin or mucous membranes, they are adsorbed at their surface chemical compounds and thereby prevent closure of the sensory nerves of their irritant action. In addition, a thin layer covering the skin or mucous membranes, absorbent material is mechanically protecting sensory nerve endings. When poisoning chemicals adsorbents slows or stops the absorption of these substances, reducing the possibility of a general poisoning. Adsorbents are also prescribed for diarrhea (they absorb toxic substances) and flatulence (absorb gases).

 Absorbent drugs | Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet

Smecta - universal adsorbent

Smecta (INN - diosmectite) - a drug of natural origin, has a pronounced adsorbent properties and protects the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines from mechanical and chemical influences.

Smectite is a silicate (silicon compound) and magnesium aluminum qualitatively characterized by their structure and properties from other silicon compounds. It has a high enveloping power, to prevent violations of water-salt metabolism, effectively deposits on the surface and excrete pathogens (bacteria and their toxins, viruses), hydrochloric acid, bile salts, and without causing a depressing effect on the normal motor aktivnostorganov gastrointestinal -kishechnogo tract. In connection with these properties smectite is widely used in the treatment of diarrhea of ​​various origins, as it eliminates not only the symptoms of the disease, but the cause of its appearance - infectious agents.

Smecta has a positive impact in gastritis with high acidity, particularly if they are accompanied by regurgitation (reflux). In these cases, smectite envelops and protects the mucous membrane of the esophagus and stomach from irritating acidic gastric contents, thereby eliminating heartburn. In normal therapeutic doses has no effect on motor activity of the bowel.

Since smectite restores the protective properties of the mucus in the stomach, after its course taking in patients with chronic gastritis in the acute stage there is an increase of protective properties of the mucous membrane of the stomach and reducing inflammation in it.

In the gastrointestinal tract smectite is not absorbed, excreted in the faeces unchanged.

 Absorbent drugs | Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet

Indications and contraindications for receiving smectite side effects that may arise out of its reception

Admission smekty shows:

  • for diarrhea of ​​any origin (infectious, allergic, medicinal, at different errors in the diet);
  • inflammatory diseases of the stomach (gastritis);
  • gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer;
  • inflammatory diseases of the colon (colitis);
  • If you have pain, heartburn and bloating on a background of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Contraindications smekty are hypersensitivity to the drug and bowel obstruction.

When receiving smekty may have constipation Constipation - Watch out for food  Constipation - Watch out for food
   (they were decreased dose drugs), and allergic reactions Allergic reactions: how to understand why you tickle in the throat  Allergic reactions: how to understand why you tickle in the throat
   (skin rash, hives, swelling, Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause  Prevention and treatment of edema - it is important to understand the root cause
   Angioedema, and others.). Smecta also reduces the rate and extent of absorption taken simultaneously with medicines, and any other medicine recommended to give some time before or after Smecta (smekty interval between doses and other drugs should not be less than an hour).

 Absorbent drugs | Smecta - necessary in any medicine cabinet

How to take smektu

Smectite manufactured as pouches with a dry substance for suspension for oral administration (in a single packet contains 3 g of the drug). Take smektu one sachet three times a day. The contents of the bag pour a thin stream of water (half cup), mixed thoroughly and drink. Babies under one year smektu can be given to one packet a day, from one to two years - two sachets per day, aged two to three bags.

Smecta - quality adsorbent which produced the well-known European pharmaceutical company Ipsen Bofur in emergencies (diarrhea, bloating Bloating - if you are bursting inside  Bloating - if you are bursting inside
   etc.) it can be taken without a doctor's prescription, but if the symptoms do not pass and the condition worsens, you should seek medical attention.

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  • smectite