Acute hepatitis - always seriously

March 5, 2014

 acute hepatitis
 Acute hepatitis - this is always a difficult disease, as disturbed function of the liver - the main body, cleansing the body from toxins of various origins. For suspected acute hepatitis patient should be immediately taken to hospital for specialized care.


Causes and types of acute hepatitis

Acute hepatitis - an acute inflammation of the liver, which usually has a viral or toxic nature. In connection with this are acute infectious and toxic hepatitis. Toxic hepatitis, depending on their cause may be drugs, alcohol, or caused by industrial plant poisons.

The cause of infectious hepatitis can be such infectious agents viral, hepatitis A virus, Epstein-Barr virus (the causative agent of mononucleosis), agents of enterovirus and adenovirus infection, and others. Most of these diseases are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, ie faeces and coughing, sneezing, talking. The causative agent of hepatitis A can also be transmitted sexually.

Toxic factors contributing to the development of acute hepatitis, can be internal (endogenous) and external (exogenous). Endogenous factors include the toxins produced in the body in a variety of infections and burns, and to exogenous - drugs, alcohol, industrial poisons (eg, phosphorus and organophosphorus insecticides) and plant toxins (eg poison pale toadstool). The cause of acute hepatitis can also be ionizing radiation Radiation and its biological effect: gently infected!  Radiation and its biological effect: gently infected!


Acute hepatitis infectious origin

Acute viral hepatitis occurs cyclically, in the course of his distinguished four periods: incubation, prodromal (preicteric), height of the disease (jaundice), and convalescence. Sometimes the disease is asymptomatic.

The incubation period for hepatitis A is 3-6 weeks prodrome lasts 1-2 weeks, but may be absent. During this period, the patient can rise temperature, pain in the joints Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?  Joint pain - how to understand what is going on?
 , Cough, runny nose, malaise, vague abdominal pain in the right hypochondrium. The most characteristic symptom of this period is to increase the blood levels of liver enzymes - transaminases.

Jaundice period lasts about a month and is characterized by jaundice staining of the skin, dark urine and discolored feces, as well as the emergence of direct bilirubin in the blood and urine urobilin. The patient is braked, concerned about pain in the liver and strong itching.

The period of convalescence (lasts from one week to three months or more), the patient's condition is gradually recovering, but can pass the disease to a chronic form. Liver pain with exacerbation of hepatitis B is a typical manifestation of this process.


Acute toxic hepatitis

In acute toxic hepatitis is also seen cyclical, but the symptoms develop rapidly, often combined with signs of intoxication and toxic damage other organs and systems. At the height of the disease occurs icteric staining of the skin and mucous membranes, discolored stools, dark (beer color) urine spot and larger hemorrhages in the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs, nosebleeds, itchy skin. Patients irritable, suffer from insomnia.

Acute drug-induced hepatitis Hepatitis - the scourge of our time  Hepatitis - the scourge of our time
   It can be caused by medications such as Mercazolilum, methyltestosterone, Voltaren Voltaren - relieve inflammation and pain  Voltaren - relieve inflammation and pain
 Indomethacin, reopirin, sulfadimetoksin, chloramphenicol, furadonin, Cordarone, TB, drugs to lower blood pressure (methyldopa, atenolol, metoprolol, labetalol, acebutolol, enalapril, verapamil), antifungal agents (ketoconazole, fluconazole), anti-androgenic therapy (flutamide) and others.

The risk of acute hepatitis increased by concomitant use of drugs 2-3. Time of taking the drugs prior to the development of acute hepatitis varies from 5-8 days to several months and sometimes years. Acute drug-induced hepatitis occurs cyclically, but difficult and creates the risk of developing acute liver failure, and thus threaten the patient's life. When the massive areas of necrosis disease can end in cirrhosis.


Acute alcoholic hepatitis

Acute alcoholic hepatitis - an illness that occurs when the intake of alcohol greatly exceeds the rate of its clearance and excretion for several days or weeks. Symptoms vary - from anicteric form with a slight increase in temperature to the development of severe liver failure and coma.


Diet for acute hepatitis

Diet with acute hepatitis should protect the liver, but be full. Patients should receive a food rich in proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. Excluded from the diet spicy, fried, fatty food, strong broths, canned meats, pickles, mushrooms, alcohol, strong tea and coffee, limited intake of salt. The latter is necessary to ensure that normal output fluid from the body. All dishes are steamed or boiled. They feed patients with acute hepatitis is 5-6 times a day in small portions. Meals during exacerbation of hepatitis is based on the same principle.

Acute hepatitis - is always serious, so the attitude should be appropriate.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • hepatitis

Acute pancreatitis - is easier to prevent than to treat

April 19, 2009

  • Acute pancreatitis - is easier to prevent than to treat
  • Course and complications

 Acute pancreatitis
 Acute pancreatitis - an inflammation of the pancreas, which is developing very quickly. Usually it takes a few days, but sometimes the symptoms get worse and the disease becomes very dangerous. The most common causes of acute pancreatitis - gallstones and alcohol abuse.

 Acute pancreatitis - is easier to prevent than to treat

What is the pancreas?

The pancreas is located in the upper abdomen, behind the stomach and intestines. It produces a liquid containing enzymes necessary for digestion. Enzymes produced in cells that fall into the thin channels (tubes). These channels are connected like the branches of a tree, forming the main pancreatic duct Diabetes and pancreas - the things you need to know  Diabetes and pancreas - the things you need to know
 . Through it fluid containing the enzymes is displayed in the duodenum (the part of the intestine is located directly behind the stomach). In the pancreas, the enzymes are in an inactive form, otherwise they would start to digest the pancreas. They are "activated" only in the duodenum.

By pancreas distributed group of cells called the islets of Langerhans producing insulin hormone The principles of action of insulin - the science of saving lives  The principles of action of insulin - the science of saving lives
   and glucagon. These hormones act directly into the bloodstream to control blood sugar Blood sugar - one of the main indicators of human health  Blood sugar - one of the main indicators of human health

Bile from the gall bladder and liver output via the bile duct that connects to the main pancreatic duct immediately before the place where the latter goes into the duodenum. Bile helps digest food.

 Acute pancreatitis - is easier to prevent than to treat

What is pancreatitis?

Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas, can be of two types:

  • Acute pancreatitis - a condition in which inflammation develops quickly, and often completely cured in a few days, without causing serious harm to the body. In some cases, acute pancreatitis occurs very hard.
  • Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by persistent inflammation. Inflammation is less strong than in acute pancreatitis, but due to its length leads to scarring and severe damage to the pancreas.

 Acute pancreatitis - is easier to prevent than to treat


In recent years, acute pancreatitis occurs more often; experts attribute this to the increasing consumption of alcohol. In 8 out of 10 cases, the cause of acute pancreatitis are alcohol or gallstones.

  • Gallstones can get through the bile duct into the duodenum, which usually causes no problems. However, some people stuck rocks where the bile duct and the main pancreatic duct connected to the duodenum. This affects the pancreatic enzymes, in some cases, completely blocking them and serves as a trigger pancreatitis.
  • Alcohol. It is not entirely clear how alcohol causes inflammation of the pancreas. The first symptoms of acute pancreatitis, tend to appear in 6-12 hours after the patient has severely abusing alcohol. Some develop pancreatitis after drinking even a small amount of alcohol.
  • Unusual causes of acute pancreatitis: viral infections (eg, mumps, HIV), the rare side effects of certain medicines; injury or surgery, affected the pancreas and adjacent organs, parasitic infections, cholesterol or calcium in the blood, the pancreas structure anomalies.
  • Autoimmune disorders - sometimes the pancreas undergoes attacks the immune system, for example, disorders such as Sjogren's syndrome Sjogren's Syndrome: systemic autoimmune disease  Sjogren's Syndrome: systemic autoimmune disease
   bilinarny cirrhosis and primary.

Approximately one out of ten cases of acute pancreatitis causes remain unknown. Probably many of these cases are caused by tiny stones in the gall bladder - so small that they can not be identified during the analysis.

 Acute pancreatitis - is easier to prevent than to treat

What happens in acute pancreatitis?

In patients with acute pancreatitis, the digestive enzymes, which are produced by the pancreas, activated in the pancreas itself and begin to "digest" the part. This triggers a series of chemical reactions which, in turn, cause inflammation of the pancreas. In 4 out of 5 cases the inflammation occurs in a relatively gentle manner and lasts no longer than a week. Within a few days the symptoms can be quite strong, but then weakened, and the pancreas is completely restored.