Vaccination against hepatitis B - to do or not worth it?

March 9, 2014

  • Vaccination against hepatitis B - to do or not worth it?
  • Side effects

 vaccination against hepatitis B
 Vaccination against hepatitis B for the first time held babies still in the hospital. This reduces the risk of infection of the child with viral hepatitis B from the sick mother. Conducted vaccinated against hepatitis B and adults, particularly at-risk, who may be at risk of contracting the infection.


Do I need a vaccination against hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a serious disease that can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer Liver cancer: prognosis is poor, but there is hope  Liver cancer: prognosis is poor, but there is hope
 . To treat this disease, if it is passed in the chronic form is very difficult, but easy to catch, as the virus is transmitted through blood and sexual contact. This means that you can get hepatitis B in the barber shop, tattoo parlor, dentist's office, reflexologist, and during sexual intercourse.

In Russia, vaccination against hepatitis B Vaccination against hepatitis B - one of the first  Vaccination against hepatitis B - one of the first
   included in the national calendar of compulsory vaccinations, which allows to contain the spread of the disease. Do I need a vaccination against hepatitis B, everyone decides for himself.

Especially needed vaccinations against Hepatitis B for people who are at risk of the possibility of infection by the disease. These are people who have promiscuous sexual relations with a history of previous infections, sexually transmitted diseases, men who have homosexual sex, sex partners of infected people, drug addicts, family members of patients with chronic hepatitis Chronic hepatitis - a diagnosis for life  Chronic hepatitis - a diagnosis for life
   The children born to mothers with hepatitis B patients, health care workers (including employees of the clinical and serological laboratory), patients undergoing hemodialysis, and repeated blood transfusions, as well as the planned surgery, traumatic diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, transplantation organs ;. Compulsory vaccination are also subject to the person heading the regions endemic for hepatitis B and permanently residing in these regions.


How does vaccination against hepatitis B

Different manufacturers produce different hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix B, Combiotech, N-in-VAX II, and others.) Well proven vaccine Engerix B (the manufacturer - GlaxoSmithKline). The vaccine is produced as a slurry of 10 and 20 micrograms for vaccinating children and adults. The vaccine composition includes the primary purified HBsAg B (HBsAg), produced by genetic engineering of the yeast cell culture and adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. From yeast HBsAg purified by several successive special method.

Vaccine causes the formation of specific HBs - antibody titre which 10 IU / L to protect against hepatitis B virus Engerix B may also prevent Hepatitis D infection in the case of the delta agent. The introduction of the vaccine is shown to all newborns, persons at risk, as well as all people living in areas with moderate to high incidence of hepatitis B.

Because of the long incubation period of HBV possibly occult infection (hepatitis B virus) during the vaccination. In such cases, the vaccine can prevent hepatitis B.

Since the development of the immune response to vaccination involve various features of the body, those who vaccination was not effective enough, might require additional dose of vaccine.

Patients on hemodialysis Hemodialysis: artificial kidney  Hemodialysis: artificial kidney
 , Immunocompromised patients (including HIV infection), sufficient titer-HBs antibodies may not be achieved after the primary immunization course, however they may also require additional vaccine.


When doing vaccinated against hepatitis B

Vaccination against hepatitis newborn usually done in three steps: first, the vaccine comes in the hospital, the second vaccination against hepatitis newborn is one month after the first, and the third - 5 months after the second. Every time a child is introduced 1 ml of a special vaccine for children. Seven months after the first dose in 96% of vaccinated children is determined by the level of protective antibodies in the blood.

Express vaccination is carried out immediately after birth, at 1 and 2 months with a booster at 12 months after the first vaccination, which provides a more rapid immune response and a greater commitment to vaccination.

Persons aged 16 years and older in exceptional circumstances requiring a rapid response to the development of preventive vaccination may be applied emergency vaccination scheme at first, seventh (second vaccination against hepatitis B) and 21 (third vaccination against hepatitis B) day. The fourth vaccination (booster) must be carried out 12 months after the first.

Persons aged 16 years and older with impaired renal function, hemodialysis primary vaccination consists of four double dose (40 micrograms) in the selected day, at 1, 2 and 6 months after the first administration of a double dose.


Where do vaccinated against hepatitis

The vaccine is administered by deep intramuscular injection in adults and older children in the region of the deltoid muscle, infants and young children - in the anterolateral area of ​​the thigh. Exceptionally, the vaccine may be administered subcutaneously to patients with bleeding disorders. It is not recommended to administer the vaccine subcutaneously or intramuscularly into the buttock - in a way not achieved an adequate immune response.

With the introduction of the vaccine should be available drugs that may be required in the event of allergic reactions. They may develop immediately after administration of the vaccine, and therefore the patients should be vaccinated for a half hour under medical supervision.

Analysis on intestinal infection - an important component in the treatment of

September 26, 2014

 analysis on intestinal infections
 Analysis on intestinal infections - reveals the pathogen as well as to pick up the drug to which it shows the greatest sensitivity. Without the analysis on intestinal infections very difficult to treat disease, since patients with different sensitivity of infectious agents to drugs can be mixed.


What gives fecal intestinal infections

Intestinal infections can be bacterial and viral origin. Bacterial intestinal infections are bacterial dysentery Dysentery - "disease of dirty hands"  Dysentery - "disease of dirty hands"
   (Shigella), salmonellosis Salmonellosis - features of the disease  Salmonellosis - features of the disease
   and other intestinal infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. Such infections are usually transmitted with dirty hands, vegetables, fruits and other foods, as well as water.

In addition, intestinal infections are sometimes caused by opportunistic pathogens, which constantly lives in the human gut. This occurs when digestive problems, goiter and so on. The most common "culprit" of such diseases are different strains of E. coli.

For intestinal infections of viral origin include rotavirus and enterovirus infection, they may be transmitted both through the water, food and unwashed hands and airborne droplets - coughing, sneezing, talking. Airborne transmission route is possible because of the fact that the viral infections are affected, as a rule, the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract.

By disease symptoms sometimes difficult to determine what caused it, and therefore it is impossible to assign adequate treatment. It is therefore of great importance to the analysis of intestinal infections.


Microbiological analysis on intestinal infections

To this end, a microbiological analysis of feces How to pass a stool, so as not to spoil it  How to pass a stool, so as not to spoil it
 That is, its crop on nutrient media or fecal intestinal group. Before sowing feces held its microscopic examination, during which can be identified pathogens, but this does not always happen, since their feces can be a little.

This is followed by seeding feces on nutrient media, where infectious agents of bacterial origin multiply rapidly, forming characteristic colonies. In addition to these colonies are usually present in the stool and other colonies of bacteria - opportunistic and useful.

When the growth of colonies is completed, microscopic examination is carried out again, this time with pure cultures for accurate identification of infectious agents. If detected in the feces of pathogenic flora (salmonella or shigella), the test is carried out on their sensitivity to antibiotics. For this, colonies of pathogenic bacteria affect antibiotics belonging to different groups and fixing result. Depending on how quickly and how much will be completely suppressed the vital activity of infectious agents or other antibiotic Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?  Antibiotics - whether they will help you in the foreseeable future?
 , The analysis will be marked by the extent of their sensitivity to it.

The results of the analysis indicated the presence or absence of pathogenic organisms, as well as the other (opportunistic and beneficial) bacteria that are part of a constant intestinal microflora.


Fecal intestinal infections by PCR

Intestinal infections can also be identified by polymerase chain reaction - PCR. This method was developed in the 80s of the last century and today has taken a worthy place in the diagnosis of intestinal infections. The main advantage of the PCR method is the speed of research, unlike microbiological analysis which is done in a few days.

PCR is based on the detection of a biological material of a small fragment of DNA or RNA of the pathogen infection. The PCR method can be carried out any study of the biological fluid.

A study by the PCR method may be qualitative or quantitative, that is, may just detect the presence of a pathogen, but may determine the amount in different biological media.

For the PCR diagnosis for research come from the stool. This method can detect the presence of infectious agents like bacteria (Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, E. coli) and viral (rotavirus, enterovirus) origin.


Blood tests for intestinal infections

Blood tests for intestinal infections (serological tests that detect antibodies to infectious agents in the blood) is used as an additional method in the preparation of the negative results of microbiological studies. This method is also applied in the later treatment of the patient and protracted course of the disease.

Analysis on intestinal infections allows you to assign the correct adequate treatment of this disease.

Galina Romanenko

Article Tags:
  • intestinal infections