In the structure of gynecological pathology 65% are pelvic inflammatory disease. Of these, the lion's share is an inflammation of the vulva, vagina and cervix. An important role in the occurrence of inflammatory diseases of female genital sphere plays the vaginal flora. During a woman's vagina contains a large number of microorganisms, many of which are in collaboration. Due to the disruption of the normal vaginal microflora there are various inflammatory processes that lead to their chronicity, the emergence of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, debilitating pelvic pain.
An excursion into the physiology of the vagina
The vagina is lined by stratified squamous epithelium neorogovevayuschy. This epithelium has four layers: the superficial (exfoliate), in between the outer basal (parabasal) and an internal basal. Over the entire period of the menstrual cycle, it cycles the layers in which exfoliate the first layer, replacing the following, and so on, which is regulated by female sex hormones (estrogens). Vaginal epithelium to protect flora from the introduction of disease-causing bacteria. Furthermore, in the process of changing layers from the surface layer stands glycogen, which is a breeding ground for the normal vaginal microflora, has wound healing properties and is involved in the formation of immune bodies.
The composition of normal microflora in women
On the part of the normal microflora influences the woman's age and her hormonal status. Vagina newborn girl the first hours after birth, and filled with sterile viscous mucus. After 12-14 hours after birth the vagina girls populated lactobacilli (lactic acid bacteria or sticks Doderlein), which moved from the mother. Their livelihoods continues for several weeks while the vaginal environment is acidic (pH 4-4, 5). This is due to the influence of maternal estrogen, which stimulates vaginal cell proliferation and, hence, release of glycogen. During this period the life of a newborn baby microflora similar to the microflora of an adult woman. After elimination of maternal hormones from the body girls vaginal environment becomes a neutral (pH 7, 6), which is stored before puberty
Puberty child - stages of a complex path
And in the composition of the microflora appear mixed bacteria (anaerobes, streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli and korinobakterii).
At puberty begin to intensively produce estrogen, which expands under the effect of the vaginal epithelium, released glycogen, lactic acid bacteria are activated. They produce lactic acid from glycogen
Lactic acid - shows our health
Thereby lowering the pH of the medium becomes acidic. In postmenopausal
Postmenopause - is it possible to control it?
the level of female sex hormones is reduced, the vaginal epithelium becomes thinner, gradually decreasing the number of lactobacilli in the vagina as a result again dominated coccal flora.
The purity of the vagina
Given that 95% of all microorganisms represented by lactic acid bacteria, there are four degrees of purity of the vagina (vaginal smear):
- The first degree of purity
In a smear in large quantities contained epithelial cells, sticks Doderlein, acidic environment of the vagina. Completely lacking white blood cells and bacteria. Lactobacilli, providing acidic environment prevents the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.
- The second degree of purity
The smears are determined by individual white blood cells, the number of lactic acid bacteria is reduced, there are certain pathogenic microbes, the vaginal environment acidic.
- The third degree of purity
The smear elevated white blood cell count, no sticks Doderlein determined streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli, in some cases, Trichomonas
Trichomonas - leads to infertility
. Vaginal content is alkaline.
Totally lacking lactic acid bacteria, white blood cells are contained in large amounts, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Alkaline environment of the vagina.
The first and second degree of purity of the vagina are normal, the third and fourth show pathology.