Spotting - it is important to rule out pathology

July 3, 2012

 bloody issues
 For normal spotting certainly applies menstrual bleeding, which is repeated at regular intervals, once a month. All other bleeding from the genital tract, not associated with menstruation, considered pathology. Causes of bleeding varied, they can occur in women of any age, as well as during pregnancy. If you have unusual vaginal bleeding, especially when bleeding should consult a doctor as often such separation is a sign of cancer.


Endometrial pathology

To the pathological process of the endometrium include endometrial hyperplasia or polyps. The main symptom of these diseases are abundant, with clots, menstruation. Often when endometrial pathology Endometrial pathology - what the consequences might be  Endometrial pathology - what the consequences might be
   arise intermenstrual bleeding, which may be in the middle of a cycle, and before or after menses. Treatment of endometrial hyperplasia Hyperplasia endometrial cancer - requires timely detection and treatment  Hyperplasia endometrial cancer - requires timely detection and treatment
   is curettage followed by the appointment of hormonal therapy. In the presence of endometrial polyps hysteroscopy is performed, during which removed growths of the uterine mucosa.


Cervical Pathology

The most common disease of the cervix is ​​the erosion. For this disease is characterized by contact spotting (after sexual intercourse, douching, or a pelvic exam). Spotting the erosion of the cervix, usually of low intensity and have a bright red color. Diagnosed cervical erosion when viewed in the mirror and during colposcopy. The main cause of the disease are hormonal disorders. Treatment of cervical erosion is its cauterization (diathermocoagulation, lazerovaporizatsiya processing chemicals).


Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding - is acyclic bleeding that occur after a delay of menstruation (one to six months). The cause of such bleeding is hormone imbalance. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding can occur at any age, since adolescence and ending premenopause Premenopausal women - one step in a woman's life  Premenopausal women - one step in a woman's life
 . Treatment of such bleeding is to achieve hemostasis and normalization of hormonal processes.



Endometritis, or inflammation of the uterus Inflammation of the uterus: required hospitalization  Inflammation of the uterus: required hospitalization
 Also accompanied by spotting that occur before and after menstruation. Such allocation look like "meat slops" with an unpleasant odor. Also observed abnormal discharge abdominal pain of varying intensity and intoxication symptoms (fever, weakness, nausea, vomiting). At gynecological examination revealed enlarged, softened, and painful uterus. Treatment of endometritis is the use of antibiotics.



Companion uterine fibroids are often bleeding from the genital tract. The most frequently observed bleeding during submucosal uterine fibroids (myoma node birth). A woman complains of cramping abdominal pain and heavy bleeding. When viewed in the cervical canal is detected nascent myoma node. Surgical treatment consists in loosening the node, and then assigned a hemostatic therapy.



Often the cause of bleeding are hormonal contraceptives or bearing IUD. Spotting when using hormonal birth control pills usually occur in the middle of the menstrual cycle. If spotting appeared in the first three months of oral hormonal contraceptives, it is considered a normal variant. Spotting that lasts longer than three months, according to the wrong choice of pills.

When wearing an intrauterine device are also possible, acyclic spotting. Most often, they signal the spontaneous expulsion (loss) spiral. In this case, removal is carried out spiral and prescribe hemostatic drugs.

Anna Sozinova

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The microflora of the vagina: purity

August 7, 2011

 vaginal flora
 In the structure of gynecological pathology 65% ​​are pelvic inflammatory disease. Of these, the lion's share is an inflammation of the vulva, vagina and cervix. An important role in the occurrence of inflammatory diseases of female genital sphere plays the vaginal flora. During a woman's vagina contains a large number of microorganisms, many of which are in collaboration. Due to the disruption of the normal vaginal microflora there are various inflammatory processes that lead to their chronicity, the emergence of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, debilitating pelvic pain.


An excursion into the physiology of the vagina

The vagina is lined by stratified squamous epithelium neorogovevayuschy. This epithelium has four layers: the superficial (exfoliate), in between the outer basal (parabasal) and an internal basal. Over the entire period of the menstrual cycle, it cycles the layers in which exfoliate the first layer, replacing the following, and so on, which is regulated by female sex hormones (estrogens). Vaginal epithelium to protect flora from the introduction of disease-causing bacteria. Furthermore, in the process of changing layers from the surface layer stands glycogen, which is a breeding ground for the normal vaginal microflora, has wound healing properties and is involved in the formation of immune bodies.


The composition of normal microflora in women

On the part of the normal microflora influences the woman's age and her hormonal status. Vagina newborn girl the first hours after birth, and filled with sterile viscous mucus. After 12-14 hours after birth the vagina girls populated lactobacilli (lactic acid bacteria or sticks Doderlein), which moved from the mother. Their livelihoods continues for several weeks while the vaginal environment is acidic (pH 4-4, 5). This is due to the influence of maternal estrogen, which stimulates vaginal cell proliferation and, hence, release of glycogen. During this period the life of a newborn baby microflora similar to the microflora of an adult woman. After elimination of maternal hormones from the body girls vaginal environment becomes a neutral (pH 7, 6), which is stored before puberty Puberty child - stages of a complex path  Puberty child - stages of a complex path
 And in the composition of the microflora appear mixed bacteria (anaerobes, streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli and korinobakterii).

At puberty begin to intensively produce estrogen, which expands under the effect of the vaginal epithelium, released glycogen, lactic acid bacteria are activated. They produce lactic acid from glycogen Lactic acid - shows our health  Lactic acid - shows our health
 Thereby lowering the pH of the medium becomes acidic. In postmenopausal Postmenopause - is it possible to control it?  Postmenopause - is it possible to control it?
   the level of female sex hormones is reduced, the vaginal epithelium becomes thinner, gradually decreasing the number of lactobacilli in the vagina as a result again dominated coccal flora.


The purity of the vagina

Given that 95% of all microorganisms represented by lactic acid bacteria, there are four degrees of purity of the vagina (vaginal smear):

  • The first degree of purity

In a smear in large quantities contained epithelial cells, sticks Doderlein, acidic environment of the vagina. Completely lacking white blood cells and bacteria. Lactobacilli, providing acidic environment prevents the growth of pathogenic microorganisms.

  • The second degree of purity

The smears are determined by individual white blood cells, the number of lactic acid bacteria is reduced, there are certain pathogenic microbes, the vaginal environment acidic.

  • The third degree of purity

The smear elevated white blood cell count, no sticks Doderlein determined streptococci, staphylococci, E. coli, in some cases, Trichomonas Trichomonas - leads to infertility  Trichomonas - leads to infertility
 . Vaginal content is alkaline.

  • Fourth purity

Totally lacking lactic acid bacteria, white blood cells are contained in large amounts, the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. Alkaline environment of the vagina.

The first and second degree of purity of the vagina are normal, the third and fourth show pathology.

Anna Sozinova