Anti-Müllerian hormone: an analysis in the diagnosis of infertility
January 3, 2012
It is known that may suffer from infertility in both men and women. Diagnosis of infertility is complex and involves a lot of tests and examinations. One of these tests is to determine antimyullerova hormone, which indicators are important when using assisted reproductive technologies (artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization). In addition, the definition of hormone antimyullerova held in certain diseases, both women and men.
Müllerian ducts (female ducts, Müllerian channels Mullerian moves) - a pair of channels formed in the seventh to eighth week of embryonic development, and are named after Johann Muller. Mullerian ducts give rise to the epithelium of the uterus, fallopian tubes and vagina. Men going Müllerian duct atrophy, and they regress under the influence of the prostatic utricle antimyullerova hormone. One of the rare disorders of fetal development in men is a persistent Mullerian duct syndrome. This syndrome refers to a form of false male hermaphrodite. Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome resulting from a violation of the return of the past, which leads to the formation of the uterus, fallopian tubes
Fallopian tubes: an important part of the reproductive system
and upper vagina. Karyotype while maintaining male - 46, XY. Atrophy of the Müllerian duct is prolonged and continues after birth before the onset of puberty
Puberty child - stages of a complex path
The concept of hormone antimyullerova
Anti-Müllerian hormone or inhibiting substance Muller (AMG) - is one of a family of growth factors transforimruschih (glycoprotein) which is involved in the growth and differentiation of tissues. In utero Sertoli cells synthesize it. Prior to the onset of puberty Anti-Müllerian hormone is produced in the testicles, then his figures are gradually declining. In the case of dysfunction of the male hormone antimyullerova saved derivatives (derivatives) Mullerian ducts, which clinically manifested cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia and reproductive dysfunction (infertility).
Women Anti-Müllerian hormone is produced in the granulosa cells of primordial follicles. The highest content in preantralnyh and antral follicles with a diameter of 4 mm, while in the dominant (main), it is completely absent. After maturation of a follicle hormone synthesis antimyullerova reduced. There are two main functions antimyullerova hormone. Firstly, it suppresses the initial stage of growth of follicles, and secondly, it inhibits growth preantralnyh and small antral follicles. Since the Anti-Müllerian hormone is not influenced gonadotrophic hormones (FSH and LH), it is a marker for determining ovarian reserve in the ovaries. The decline in hormone antimyullerova are a testament to reduce the ovarian reserve of the ovaries.
Reduction of reproductive function in healthy women is directly related to the concentration of the AMG, as the number decreases with age antral follicles and ovulation rate decreases dramatically.
Indications to determine the hormone antimyullerova
Determination antimyullerova hormone is important in the diagnosis of disease in men and women. The spectrum of indications antimyullerova hormone definition is wide enough:
- diagnosis of precocious puberty;
- delayed sexual development;
- the presence of cryptorchidism and anorchia;
- evaluation of sexual function in men (all ages);
- definition of ovarian ovarian reserve (especially on the eve of IVF and artificial insemination);
- diagnosis and monitoring the effectiveness of treatment of granulosa cell ovarian cancer;
- unsuccessful IVF attempts, or lack of response to ovarian stimulation
Ovarian stimulation: if you want to get pregnant
- infertility of unknown origin;
- the problem of conception;
- high or borderline performance follicle stimulating hormone;
- during chemotherapy
Chemotherapy - it always falls the hair?
(AMG - a marker of ovarian function);
- determining the presence of testicular tissue;
- Evaluating the effectiveness of ADT.
Normal levels of the hormone antimyullerova
Men indicators AMH varies between 0, 49-5, 98 ng / ml.
Women AMH indicators are within 1, 0-2, 5 ng / ml.
Selections transparent color - no evidence of pathology
July 3, 2012
Discharge from the genital tract are natural physiological feature of every woman. That character, consistency, density, transparency or turbidity may be suspected pathology of the female genitalia. Moreover, female allocation change throughout the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. Most often women suffer from the appearance of clear discharge
Transparent allocation when they are normal?
Which in some cases may be signs of a gynecological disease. Still, vaginal discharge is not always indicate the existence of pathology.
Normal vaginal discharge
The main sources of vaginal discharge is the lining of the uterus and cervix. Furthermore, in the discharge part of the liquid which propotevaet through the vaginal mucosa, as well as the contents of the sebaceous and sweat glands of the skin of the vulva. Normal vaginal whites look like a transparent and liquid discharge (mucus or gel), do not have a sharp odor and does not cause subjective complaints (discomfort in the vulva, itching and burning). Furthermore, normal vaginal discharge - a selection which do not irritate the skin of the vulva and genital mucosa (no redness and swelling). In some cases, normal vaginal whites have milky color, but also transparent. Number of daily discharge is less than two milliliters.
Normally, aged from one month to nine years of vaginal discharge in girls missing. This time is a period of physiological rest and due to the lack of menstruation and maturation of oocytes. After nine years of age there are vaginal discharge, which are transient. Outwardly such allocation resemble raw egg white or rice water. Vaginal discharge the girls before and during puberty
Puberty child - stages of a complex path
transparent, cause no trouble and no foreign odors.
Period of ovulation
Vaginal discharge subject to the action of hormones that affect the menstrual cycle, and change their appearance and volume depending on the phase. In the middle of the menstrual cycle, when there was an egg maturation and release it into the abdominal cavity (ovulation), the amount of vaginal discharge increased, they become more abundant, thinning and similar to raw egg white eggs. These changes indicate the maximum concentration of estrogen and ovulation occurred
Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?
. Vaginal discharge during and immediately after ovulation and transparent.
In the second phase of the menstrual cycle, when the process involves the corpus luteum hormone - progesterone
Progesterone - norm and pathology
Volume of vaginal discharge increases. Color vaginal cables may be different (yellow, dairy or mucous and transparent). A few days before the onset of menstruation a woman observes the appearance of heavy, transparent, creamy or kiseleobraznyh selections. Certainly, normal allocation before menstruation have no odor and does not cause irritation of the external genitalia.
After the incident fertilization release also change their character. Under the influence of progesterone cancer of the uterus begin to intensively produce mucus and endometrium prepares for implantation of the egg. During this period, the amount of vaginal discharge increased, and visually they look like slimy viscous whites transparent color. With thirteen weeks of pregnancy, due to increased production of estrogen vaginal secretions become more intense, but remain transparent.
The amount of vaginal discharge in the cervical erosion significantly exceeds the normal discharge. This is due to abnormal growth of columnar epithelium with lots of glands in the vaginal part of the cervix (normally it is covered by stratified squamous epithelium). Bewley the presence of cervical erosion and transparent in the absence of infection have no odor. A characteristic feature of the disease is the presence of cervical bleeding contact discharge (after sexual intercourse, or pelvic exam).