Ovarian cysts: causes and treatment

June 13, 2012

  • Ovarian cysts: causes and treatment
  • Diagnosis and surgery

 the causes of ovarian cyst treatment
 Ovarian cyst - a small fluid-filled "bag", produced in the ovaries of women. Most cysts are harmless and go away on their own, but some of them can cause problems such as fractures, bleeding and pain in the ovaries. In such cases, a cyst or cysts removed surgically.

Normally, a woman - two of the ovary where the egg and where they get their time in the womb. Each ovary is about the size of a walnut and is located on the side of the uterus. Every month, the ovary releases one egg. The egg is "capsule", which is called the follicle. The egg grows in the ovary, while estrogen Estrogen - the key to bone health  Estrogen - the key to bone health
   the uterus does not give a signal to get ready to take the egg. In response, the wall of the uterus begin to condense, to be ready for implantation of a fertilized egg. This cycle is repeated every month and usually ends with the unfertilized egg is tricked out of the uterus. This is menstruation.

The image obtained by means of ultrasound, ovarian cysts resemble bubbles. The cyst contains only fluid that surrounds a very thin wall. This is called a functional cyst, or simple cyst. If the follicle for some reason unable to open and release an egg, the fluid remains inside and forms a cyst.

Usually, cysts are formed only in one ovary. Small cysts (less than 2, 5 cm in diameter) can be formed and in healthy ovaries.

Ovarian cysts may occur in a woman at any time, but most often in the form of child-bearing age. Most of this functional cysts. These are normal and do not indicate the presence of any disease.


Types of functional ovarian cysts

  • Follicular cyst

Follicular cyst forms when ovulation occurs. Such cysts can reach 6-9 cm in diameter. Break follicular cysts can cause severe one-sided pain. Painful symptoms are about a quarter of women with this type of cyst. Typically, such a cyst in a couple of months, she disappears.

  • Corpus luteum cyst

Corpus luteum cyst formed after the egg came out of the follicle. After this so-called follicle becomes the corpus luteum. This is a temporary gland that produces hormones, preparing the uterus for possible pregnancy; If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum usually just disappears. However, it can be filled with a liquid - blood, for example, and remain in the ovary. Corpus luteum cyst usually forms only in one ovary has no symptoms and goes away with time.

  • Hemorrhagic cyst

This kind of functional cyst occurs when bleeding inside the cyst begins. Its symptom is pain on one side of the abdomen.

  • Dermoid cyst

Benign tumors of this type are sometimes also referred to as a mature cystic teratoma. This cyst develops mainly in young women and can reach 15 centimeters in diameter. It may contain fat, various tissues of the body and even particles of bones, cartilage and hair. Because of this, ultrasound does not always give a clear picture of such cysts. It is better to explore by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. These cysts can become inflamed and twisted, causing severe pain in the abdomen.

  • Endometrioma and endometrioid cyst

Formed when the ovaries fall into cells of the inner layer of the wall of the uterus (endometrial cells). Typically, the disease occurs in women of childbearing age; it can lead to chronic pain during menstruation.

Endometriosis - is the presence of endometrial cells outside the uterus. In women, the disease can cause problems with pregnancy and childbearing. The diameter of endometrial cysts from 2 to 20 centimeters.

  • Polycystic ovaries

This diagnosis is made when the ovaries significantly increased - as a rule, twice the norm, and on the surface there are multiple small cysts. It happens in healthy women and women with hormonal disorders Hormonal disorders - oversupply and a lack of equally dangerous  Hormonal disorders - oversupply and a lack of equally dangerous
 . The ovaries are examined by ultrasound.

  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Polycystic ovaries are not the same thing as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The latter includes, in addition to ovarian cysts, many other physiological disorders. With PCOS increases the risk of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.

PCOS can cause infertility The causes of infertility - heredity and lifestyle  The causes of infertility - heredity and lifestyle
 , Bleeding in women with this syndrome increased risk of miscarriage and other complications during pregnancy.

PCOS is very common; it is believed that it occurs in 4-7% of women of reproductive age. The syndrome is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. To diagnose PCOS, is not only one ultrasound - for an accurate diagnosis is necessary to use several methods.

  • Cystadenoma

It is a benign tumor formed from cells of the ovary. Some cystadenoma filled with mucus. In some cases they reach 30 centimeters in diameter.


Risk factors

  • Ovarian cysts history
  • Irregular periods
  • Large fat deposition in the upper body
  • Early onset of menstruation (at age 11 or earlier)
  • Barrenness
  • Hypothyroidism or hormonal disorders
  • Tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer

Hormonal birth control pills reduce the risk of ovarian cysts, as pills do not give the ovaries to release the egg during ovulation Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?  Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?



The most common ovarian cysts are asymptomatic and are found in the survey, designated for another reason. Sometimes, however, symptoms may include:

  • Pain in the lower abdomen or pelvic
  • Irregular periods
  • Feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen or in the pelvis
  • Pelvic pain after intense exercise and / or after intercourse
  • Pain or pressure during urination
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Vaginal pain and / or discharge from the blood (not menstruating)
  • Barrenness

You should also contact your doctor if the following symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Unusually severe pain in the abdomen
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weakness, dizziness, fainting
  • Severe pallor and / or anemia (possibly from blood loss)
  • Unusually heavy and irregular periods
  • Bloating or rapidly increasing waist
  • Abdominal pain after taking blood thinners (e.g. warfarin)
  • Increasing the amount of hair on the face of male type
  • High or low blood pressure is not associated with medications
  • Excessive thirst and / or frequent urination
  • Weight loss for no apparent reason

When these symptoms should immediately seek medical attention or call an ambulance:

  • Weakness, dizziness, a state on the verge of fainting, especially when you stand
  • Swoon
  • Sustained fever
  • Acute pain in the lower abdomen and pelvic
  • Strong decrease or increase in blood pressure that is not associated with taking medications
  • Excessive thirst and / or frequent urination
  • Causeless shoulder pain and pain in the abdomen
  • Prolonged nausea and vomiting