Endometriosis adenomyosis - what is it? There are some forms of endometriosis, including the released form when the body of the uterus is affected - its wall. This form of endometriosis called adenomyosis. Depending on how deep in the uterine wall penetrated endometrial lesions, there are several degrees of adenomyosis.
What is endometriosis, adenomyosis
Endometriosis is a disease in which tissue similar to the structure of the endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus) is developing within other tissues and organs. When the endometrium develops within the body of the uterus, a form of endometriosis called adenomyosis or internal endometriosis.
Depending on how deep in the uterine wall to penetrate areas of endometrial tissue, there are three degrees of adenomyosis. When I degree of endometriosis sites are located on the border between the endometrium and myometrium, affecting only the outer layers of the myometrium (ie, on the border between the mucosa and muscle shell, affecting the outer layers of the latter). At the II degree of adenomyosis endometriosis extend to the middle of the myometrium, and for III degree - affect the entire wall of the uterus before it is serous (outer) layer.
Causes of adenomyosis
For the development of any form of endometriosis requires two conditions: hormonal background in the form of increased secretion of female sex hormones estrogen and impaired immunity. The combination of all these reasons and causes adenomyosis.
Reasons adenomyosis not completely installed, as it is not clear how, the cells are separated (functional) layer of the endometrium into the myometrium fall, because on their way there is such an obstacle as basal (not separated during menstruation) layer of the endometrium. It is believed that this happens when the permeability of congenital disorders of the basal layer of the endometrium, or in violation of the outflow of menstrual blood through the cervical canal, which creates increased pressure of the uterus.
Adenomyosis - a rare disease?
Conversely, adenomyosis - is one of the most frequent diseases. But in most cases it proceeds adenomyosis symptoms, and therefore the majority of women are unaware of its presence. With age, the number of female sex hormones and decreases after menopause foci of adenomyosis regress. Distribution of adenomyosis is suspended during pregnancy, since in this period of "kingdom" the female sex hormone progesterone
Progesterone - norm and pathology
And the endometrium from the uterine wall is not separated.
If a woman has had any intrauterine manipulation, abortion, obstructed labor, operations, this can serve as an impetus for the dissemination of adenomyosis, in this case, there are signs of it. This should be treated with adenomyosis.
Symptoms of adenomyosis
The main features of adenomyosis
Symptoms of adenomyosis - characteristic and recognizable
are pain and uterine bleeding
Uterine bleeding outside of menstruation - a sign of a serious breach
. Pain can be worn while spastic character and occur immediately prior to menstruation and continue throughout menstruation. Pain associated with the rejection of the endometrium within the myometrium, which leads to inflammation, edema and congestion of blood. This in turn causes compression of nerve endings and pain. When the muscle layer of the uterus spasms pain intensified and become acute.
In addition, a characteristic symptom of adenomyosis
Adenomyosis: Symptoms - what to expect from the body?
are heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia). At the same time in front of the field and a few days of menstruation continues minor spotting. There may also metrorragii - intermenstrual bleeding.
Regular blood loss lead to the appearance of yet another characteristic symptom of adenomyosis - iron deficiency anemia.
Based on what the diagnosis
The initial degree of adenomyosis is not always possible to determine during the inspection of a gynecologist. The most common areas of adenomyosis identified on ultrasound (US), which is carried out first using the external (research carried out through the abdominal wall) sensor, and then use vaginal probe (probe inserted into the vagina).
Clarify status of the uterine wall is possible by means of additional studies - hysteroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To eliminate endometriosis tubal ligation performed X-ray examination.
How to treat adenomyosis
If adenomyosis does not manifest itself and spread not, it is usually not treated. But such a woman must be constant surveillance: any adverse factor could provoke disease progression.
If you have symptoms of the disease is assigned to conservative or surgical treatment. Conservative treatment - this suppression of estrogen secretion and stimulation of immunity. Surgical treatment - removal of nodes or the entire uterus adenomyosis.