Calorie foods - how not to gain too much?
December 4, 2008
Any food - a calorie (energy) plus nutrients. All calories are made up of only three elements: carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Nutrients are derived from non-nutritive food factors - including vitamins, minerals, fiber and phytochemicals. These noncaloric nutrients, but are very important for health. Therefore, to control your weight, it's important to know the caloric value of food consumed (carbohydrates, fats and proteins).
When you have decided on the desired weight, you need to understand what kind of food and how much you can eat. This food should be healthy, nutritious and contain you set the number of calories. Did you eat enough, but eat the "wrong" foods, not providing the body with all the nutrients it needs. Remember that the quality of food is no less important than its quantity. Healthy rational (proper) food should include the following components:
- fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat milk and dairy products with low fat content. This is the foundation of any healthy eating program
Healthy eating - do not limit yourself to eating
As well as fruits and vegetables contain a lot of nutrients, but very few calories.
- lean meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs and nuts.
- a minor amount of saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and sugars, particularly purified.
In addition, a healthy diet - a balanced diet in which the caloric intake meets the energy needs of the body, and do not exceed them.
What are nutrients?
Nutrients - a substance needed for normal functioning of the body. By nutrients include vitamins, minerals, fats, proteins and carbohydrates. The nutrients contained in foods and dietary supplements. Particularly useful nutrients are of natural origin. So if you have a choice between orange and tablets of vitamin C, it is better to eat an orange.
Some specific groups of people body's need for certain nutrients above, so they are recommended vitamin and mineral supplements. These groups include women of childbearing age, pregnant women (especially in the first trimester); elderly people over 50 years, as well as those who are rarely in the street.
Why nutrients so important?
It is important to provide the body with the recommended dose of nutrients because they are needed for normal growth and development of children, promote health and reduce the risk of several chronic diseases.
Many people neglect the needs of the body and do not use the right amount of nutrients. The need for a particular nutrient calculated from your age and sex:
- Adults need: calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, vitamins A, C and E.
- Children and adolescents need calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, vitamin E.
- Some specific groups are needed: Vitamin B12
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Iron, folic acid
Folic acid - the value is hard to overestimate
, Vitamin E, and D.
The energy needs of the body (the number of calories, which for human life in the day) depends on many factors, chief among them the age and physical activity. So, if the baby spends the day about 800 kcal, preteen need to have 2400 kcal. At puberty
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particularly strong body needs energy, so the daily rate shall be no less than 3200 kcal. When exertion rate increases to 4000 kcal for women and 5000 for men.
How to make the most of the nutrients and calories
Many people find it difficult to control your calorie intake and thus to receive enough nutrients. Calories - is only one aspect of your diet. Another aspect - the use of products that promote health and prevent chronic diseases. You can exhaust the daily requirement of calories, consuming more energy-dense foods and beverages, but in this case you get a full range of nutrients needed for a healthy body. Therefore it is necessary to choose the most nutritious foods rich in vitamins, minerals, fiber and other nutrients, but contain fewer calories.
Pregnancy and Nutrition: dangerous products
September 30, 2006
- Pregnancy and Nutrition: dangerous products
The most important thing that can be done to your child's future mother - is to eat right. A balanced diet - a diet that includes foods from all food groups in the necessary quantities, and provides the necessary body nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water).
Good nutrition is essential for normal development and functioning of all organs; to maintain an optimal level of activity and performance, resistance to infection and disease, as well as for the recovery of damages or injuries. Although pregnancy - a natural condition for the female body, it is associated with stress
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And the nutritional needs of pregnant women increases, as it needs to literally "eat for two."
Experts estimate that the diet of pregnant women should contain from 80 to 100 grams of protein corresponding to the amount of salt (to taste) and water, as well as high-calorie foods from all food groups. The World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women consume a daily minimum of 75 grams of protein, but getting it from natural sources, along with other nutrients. This will prevent many of the complications of pregnancy, including preeclampsia. In drawing up a balanced diet you can follow the food pyramid, but pregnant women need more protein and calories. This means that the daily menu expectant mother should include:
- two to three servings of meat, fish, nuts, and legumes;
- two or three servings of milk products (milk, yogurt, cheese), and eggs;
- Two servings of fresh green vegetables, one serving of yellow vegetables;
- three servings of fresh fruit;
- three servings of whole grain breads, cereals, and other complex carbohydrates;
- salt to taste;
- six to eight glasses of pure filtered water each day.
At first glance, it seems that it is quite a lot of food, but with the right choice of products, their total energy value will be 2000-3000 calories needed for healthy growth and development of the child.
During pregnancy, a woman's blood volume increases by 40-60%; to achieve and maintain this level and maintain the body of a pregnant woman needs protein, salt, calcium, potassium and water. According to American scientists, calcium helps reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia. Pregnant women also need folic acid (vitamin E), to prevent the development of a child's neural tube birth defects such as congenital lumbar hernia. Therefore, doctors recommend expectant mothers eat foods (such as bread and pasta), fortified with folic acid or take supplements of this vitamin. The recommended daily dose of folic acid - 400 mg.
If you limit or control the consumption of fast food and sweets, weight gain is not a problem. The addition of 12-15 kilos during pregnancy is quite natural, but these kilos should not be the result of high-calorie fast food passions. The diet of pregnant women should consist primarily of healthy food, that is, unprocessed foods as close to their natural state. While vitamin supplements are very popular today, taking them during pregnancy is associated with some health risk. For example, vitamin B complex to be taken, and the absence, deficiency or excess of either vitamin A can lead to health problems. Before taking any vitamins and supplements during pregnancy, consult your doctor.
Craving for certain products - a common phenomenon during pregnancy and, in theory, may indicate the need for a given nutrient. Cravings for normal products can meet without fear, but if there is a strong desire to "eat" with chalk, charcoal, clay or starch ("pica"), you should seek medical advice.
The main sources of nutrients that should be included in the diet of pregnant women:
- protein: chicken, fish, beef, pork, turkey, tofu, nuts, legumes (beans), milk, eggs, cheese, cereal, wheat gluten, soy cheese;
- whole grains: brown rice, kasha (buckwheat), oatmeal, whole-grain bread, quinoa, wild rice, wheat gluten, wheat germ, whole grain pasta;
- fruit: strawberries, kiwi, apples, oranges, bananas
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Mango, melon, pear, grapefruit, plums, nectarines and peaches
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- green vegetables: spinach, broccoli, zucchini, dark green lettuce, cabbage, beets, green beans, asparagus, arugula, lettuce;
- dairy products: milk, yogurt, cheese, cottage cheese;
- other useful products: baked potato, sweet potato, carrots, squash, peas, soy products, corn;
- iron: red meat, organ meats, eggs, fish, poultry, syrup, cherry juice, green leafy vegetables, dried fruits (raisins, apricots, etc.);
- Zinc: pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, seafood, organ meats, mushrooms, brewer's yeast, soybeans, eggs, wheat germ, turkey meat;
- Folic acid: spinach, asparagus, Brussels sprouts, soybeans, organ meats, brewer's yeast
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, Root vegetables, whole grains, wheat germ, white beans, salmon, orange juice, avocados, milk.