The regulation of the menstrual cycle: all on schedule

May 12, 2011

 regulation of the menstrual cycle
 The menstrual cycle in a woman's body plays a huge role. And like all the processes occurring in the body, the menstrual cycle has its own regulation. The system of regulation is very complex and is built in the form of stairs, in a hierarchical type. All underlying structure overlying subject, but in turn, the signals from the underlying structures regulate the overlying.

 The regulation of the menstrual cycle: all on schedule

Menstrual cycle

The menstrual cycle - a cyclical changes in the female body, aimed at the preparation and implementation of conception. Literally translated from the Latin, the menstrual cycle is called the lunar cycle. The average duration of 28 days, but can range from 21 to 35 days. The countdown of the menstrual cycle begins on the first day of menstruation to the first day of the next. The duration of the menstrual cycle is individual for each woman and depends on the physiological characteristics.

 The regulation of the menstrual cycle: all on schedule

Levels of regulation of the menstrual cycle

The regulation of the menstrual cycle are five levels:

  • First level

This level includes extrahypothalamic cerebral structures - the cerebral cortex. These structures perceive pulses coming from the external environment with their further transmission to the hypothalamus. The flow of information coming from the outside and cause emotions Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code  Emotions and culture: how to decipher the emotional code
 Behavior and mental activity affects the condition of the reproductive system. An example would be a violation of ovulation with stress, heavy or hazardous conditions, climate change.

  • Second level

The second level of regulation of the menstrual cycle include the hypothalamus, which in turn controls the operation of the pituitary. The hypothalamus is presented in the form of clusters of nerve cells synthesizing specific hormones (corticotropin releasing hormone). Lyuliberin releasing hormone and its analogs affect the pituitary gland, and cause it to produce steroids - follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones.

  • Third level

The third level of regulation - is directly the pituitary gland. It synthesizes follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone, and prolactin governing the functioning of the ovary and breast. Iron target for FSH and LH hormones is the ovary. They stimulate the growth and maturation of the follicle. Luteinizing hormone promotes the formation of androgens and progesterone synthesis in cells ovulirovshego follicle (ie, after maturation and release of the egg). Prolactin is responsible for breast growth and lactation. Furthermore, prolactin possesses antihypertensive properties.

  • Fourth level

The fourth level of regulation - is the ovaries. Ovaries undergoing complex processes of steroids and follicular development. During ovulation, a mature follicle bursts and the egg comes out of it. Remains of the follicle later transformed into the corpus luteum which produces progesterone Progesterone - norm and pathology  Progesterone - norm and pathology
 . There are two types of yellow bodies: the first - menstrual, which regress at 12-14 days of the menstrual cycle The days of the menstrual cycle: Four phases  The days of the menstrual cycle: Four phases
   (formed from a white body which resolves) and the second - the corpus luteum of pregnancy in the case of fertilization (operates the entire pregnancy and reaches a huge size).

  • Fifth level

By the fifth level of the regulation of the menstrual cycle are the target organs. They are the final destination of the action of sex hormones synthesized by the ovaries. It genital organs (uterus, tubes, vagina) and other (breast, skin, adipose tissue, bone). All these organs contain receptors for sex hormones.

 The regulation of the menstrual cycle: all on schedule

The phases of the menstrual cycle

There are four phases of the menstrual cycle:

  • Follicular phase

Follicular phase begins with the first day of the menstrual cycle. At this time the maturation of the main (dominant) follicle from which subsequently leaves mature egg. In the uterus during this period begins to grow and thicken the endometrium (functional layer), which is prepared to accept a fertilized egg.

  • Ovulatory phase

By the seventh day is determined by the dominant follicle, which continues to grow and secrete estradiol, while other follicles in this period atreziruyutsya (regress). This phase lasts three days, this is accompanied by the release of luteinizing hormone, which is under the influence of the dominant follicle bursts and the egg leaves mature. That is, ovulation occurs within 24 hours.

  • The secretory phase

Secretory phase - is the period between ovulation Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?  Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?
   and the onset of menses. During this period, the corpus luteum is formed which starts to produce progesterone (pregnancy hormone), estradiol and androgens. During the secretory phase endometrial glands mature, proliferate and begin to secrete. If fertilization has occurred, it is implanted in the endometrium is already prepared. If fertilization does not happen, the corpus luteum is reduced (growing back), progesterone levels fall and menstruation begins.

  • Phase desquamation

Phase desquamation - a rejection of the functional layer of the endometrium - menstruation.

Anna Sozinova

Article Tags:
  • regulation of the menstrual cycle

The first month, when the girl grows up

May 30, 2012

 first period
 The family is growing girl, so sooner or later have to face a variety of problems associated with puberty, a sudden change in behavior, and of course, in such an important event as the first month. The first month - is not only an important event in the life of the girl, but also in the lives of her parents. After all, because how the puberty depends on the child's health and its future ability to have children. But, unfortunately, it is still only a fraction of parents ready for change, and an even smaller part of preparing a teenage girl to the upcoming tests (yes, testing, after puberty - this process is very complex, not only in physiological terms, but also in the moral ).

 The first month, when the girl grows up

Puberty girls

During the period of sexual maturation (puberty) occurs in the strict sequence. In the first period (prepubertal), the girl has been a sharp "jump" of growth, the first signs of feminization figures, rounded hips (at the expense of growth and redistribution of adipose tissue), begins to form a female pelvis, vaginal mucosa and increasing the number of layers of the epithelium.

Then comes the first phase of puberty when girls begin to form secondary sexual characteristics. In phase thelarche (10-13 years) begin to grow breasts, appearance of pubic hair - pubarhe, corresponds to the age of 11-12 years, and completed the first phase of menarche, or first menstruation.

The second phase of puberty (14-17 years) is characterized by the final formation of the mammary glands is completed sexual body hair and menstrual cycle becomes regular and ovulatory. All these processes take place under the influence of Gomonov ovaries and adrenal androgens.

 The first month, when the girl grows up


Menarche - a first period in the life of the girl, which indicate the formation of a girl into a woman. Menarche are the main feature of puberty and normal start at 11-15 years (mean 13). If 14 years is no evidence of the girl's sexual development, and in 16 years there is no menstruation, say belated puberty Puberty child - stages of a complex path  Puberty child - stages of a complex path
 . The first month starts after two or three years after the onset of puberty. The final formation of the menstrual cycle Menstrual cycle and its characteristics  Menstrual cycle and its characteristics
   occurs within one-half years after menarche. It is believed at this time only 25% of women have ovulatory cycles. The length of the menstrual cycle is different and depends on the individual woman. Normally, it should not be shorter than 21 days, longer than 35 days. Sami menstruation lasts three to five days, and on the top is very scarce.

 The first month, when the girl grows up

Factors affecting puberty

At puberty, and, consequently, the appearance of the first menstruation is influenced by many factors. They can be divided into two groups: external and internal.

The internal factors include heredity, constitutional features and weight. It is noted that menarche is earlier in girls with greater body weight. It is believed that the first month appear in body weight 47, 8 kg.

External factors influencing the course and the onset of puberty include:

  • climatic conditions (light, geographical location, height above sea level);
  • food (adequate level of dietary protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals);
  • nerve strain and stress;
  • chronic diseases (pathology of the cardiovascular system, kidney, liver).

 The first month, when the girl grows up

Hygiene Girls

After the first month-old girl should be explained the rules of personal hygiene. First of all she needs to know that during menstruation is necessary to wash at least twice a day. Using soap is not desirable. The gaskets must be replaced as they are getting wet, but not less frequently than every four hours.

My mother (my grandmother's sister) have to teach the girl to lead a calendar month. In the period of menstrual bleeding girl should explain that to take a bath, swimming pool and sauna Sauna and health: the benefits and harms of bath procedures  Sauna and health: the benefits and harms of bath procedures
   it is impossible. During the month in the diet should be restricted to acute, smoked, fatty dishes, as well as chocolate and coffee. It is recommended to avoid strenuous exercise, heavy lifting and exposure.

Anna Sozinova

Article Tags:
  • menstruation in girls