- Menstrual cycle and its characteristics
- Main problems
Menstrual cycle and its features
The menstrual cycle - is, in fact, a series of changes, through which the woman's body in preparation for a possible pregnancy. About once a month the inside of the uterus, called the endometrium so, thicker - as the uterus prepares to accept a fertilized egg. If fertilization, which begins a pregnancy does not occur, the uterine lining peels off, leaving the blood out of the uterus. This process is called menstrual bleeding. Menstruation begins in adolescence and continue monthly until menopause (about age fifty).
The length of the menstrual cycle is different and represents a number of days from the first day of menstruation until the first day of the next menstruation. Although it is believed that the average length of the menstrual cycle is twenty-eight days, and shorter cycle (twenty-one days) and a longer cycle (thirty-five days) are also considered absolutely normal. In adolescent girls menstrual cycle length can be up to forty-five days.
The first period usually begins between the ages of eleven to fourteen years. Over time, the cycle time increases - at age forty years and more frequency of the onset of menstruation may vary, and the length of the cycle increase or decrease. Upon reaching menopause, menstruation, as a rule, is being phased out.
Upon detection of serious abnormalities of the menstrual cycle, it is recommended to consult a doctor. Especially important is a consultation with a doctor, if three of the last menstrual period lasts more than seven days or are accompanied by profuse bleeding. In addition, deviations from the norm are considered to be bleeding between periods or pelvic pain.
What affects the menstrual cycle?
The most important factor influencing the course of the menstrual cycle - hormones. During each cycle, the pituitary gland produces hormones that stimulate the maturation process of the egg in the ovary and uterus preparation for a possible pregnancy. The greatest role in the changes of the uterus during the menstrual cycle play hormones estrogen and progesterone
Progesterone - norm and pathology
- Estrogen causes thickening of the uterine lining.
- Progesterone levels rise after ovulation
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(release of the egg from the ovary) at mid-cycle - this allows you to keep the inside of the uterus thick and ready to receive a fertilized egg.
- Reduced levels of estrogen and progesterone
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causing detachment of the uterine lining and the beginning of menstruation.
Fluctuations in the level of hormones may affect not only the menstrual cycle, but also on the ability to conceive. For example, adolescents tend to progesterone levels are very low or often fluctuates - as well as in women during menopause. That is why adolescents and women over forty often observed violation of the periodicity of menstruation and (or) heavy menstrual bleeding.
The change in the menstrual cycle may affect a number of other factors. Provoke changes in the menstrual cycle may contraceptive drugs, dramatic weight loss or, conversely, excess weight, stress
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, Abuse of physical activity. But the most common cause of absence of menstruation - a pregnancy.
Symptoms of the menstrual cycle
Some of the women during the menstrual period, do not feel any pain or other symptoms. However, most women with the onset of menstruation faces a number of rather unpleasant symptoms.
Approximately one week prior to the onset of menstruation in many women symptoms of premenstrual syndrome: a woman may become irritable and aggressive. The main symptoms of PMS include fluid retention, bloating, increase in breast size and breast tenderness, cramps in the abdomen, back, legs. As a rule, all the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome disappear with the onset of menses.
After ovulation, ie release the mature egg from the ovary, some women experience minor pain in the lower abdomen - this phenomenon, as well as small bleeding in the middle of the menstrual cycle is considered perfectly normal.
How to relieve the symptoms of menstruation?
Relieve pain and other unpleasant sensations that accompany menstruation, can be achieved by regular exercise and following a healthy, balanced diet. Furthermore, at least for the period of menstruation, it is recommended to limit the use of alcohol and beverages containing caffeine and control the effects of stress
Hot compresses, a warm bath to help ease the spasms that often accompany the beginning of the next period. In addition, to cope with the painful sensations may be taking painkillers - such as ibuprofen or naproxen, are available at pharmacies without a prescription.
Duration of the menstrual cycle
Duration of the menstrual cycle - is the number of days during which the menstrual cycle continues. Duration of the menstrual cycle should not be confused with the length of the menstrual period, - the number of days during which the menstrual period continues. Day of the onset of menstruation is the first day of a new menstrual cycle.
The average length of the menstrual cycle in women is most twenty-eight days, and the length of the menstrual period - three to five days. Of course, the averages are not always reflect the individual cycle: only ten percent of women in practice cycle lasts exactly twenty-eight days, while the other may be longer and shorter. Additionally, the length of the menstrual cycle can vary under the influence of a variety of different factors.
To calculate the length of the menstrual cycle, you must count the number of days from the first day of menstruation until the day precedes the start of the next menstrual period, inclusive. This number does not include days following the first day of the menstrual period, since this day - the first day of the menstrual cycle.
For example: menstrual period began on 1 June and lasted five days. Next menstruation began on 27 June. The length of the menstrual cycle, so the twenty-four days - the number of days from 3 to 26 June, excluding the day of the next menstrual period, ie on 27 June. The length of the menstrual period, the length of the menstrual cycle has no effect - it does not matter whether menstruation lasted for five days, four or six, the total length of the menstrual cycle still amounted to twenty-four days.
The average length of the menstrual cycle is calculated as the sum of the individual menstrual cycle, divided by the total number.