Hypogonadotropic amenorrhea is caused by a decrease in the secretion of pituitary gonadotropins (TG). This in turn leads to a reduction of ovarian function and menstrual irregularities by type of amenorrhea. The reason for reducing the secretion of TG can be associated both with the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.
What hypogonadotropic amenorrhea and why it develops
Neurohormonal system supporting the woman's menstrual cycle and her fertility, consists of the following units: the cerebral cortex - the hypothalamus - pituitary - ovary. Failure of any of these links leads to disruption of the entire system.
So, stress, severe physical and mental stress, intoxication caused by chronic foci of infection experienced in childhood severe infections, as well as family history (changes in the chromosome apparatus) can lead to the fact that disrupted the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus, the main task a rhythmic release of its own hormones that stimulate the synthesis and secretion of pituitary THG. When a pacemaker fails, the work of the pituitary gland are also broken, it produces less THG - FSH and LH (FSH and LH).
Lack of FSH leads to the fact that sustained oocyte matures and released from the ovary, as well as to reduce isolation ovariectomized female hormone estrogen. The lack of estrogen causes a lack of proliferation (proliferation) of the mucous membrane of the uterus.
A small amount of LH is unable to trigger ovulation and provide hormonal support of the second half of the menstrual cycle, as it does not stimulate the production of progesterone. The secretion of progesterone is not possible yet because ovulation has not occurred, and on-site ruptured follicle is not formed corpus luteum secretes progesterone. Thus, broken all phases of the menstrual cycle, resulting in no menstruation - amenorrhea.
The reason hypogonadotropic amenorrhoea can also diseases and tumors that occur in the hypothalamus and in the pituitary. In these lesions sometimes is not so much reduced secretion of TG and female sex hormones, as a violation of the right rhythm of their allocation - that is what leads to a lack of ovulation and the development of amenorrhea. All this leads to the formation of persistent infertility.
Symptoms of hypogonadotropic amenorrhea
The main symptom of hypogonadotropic amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation. In addition, a distinctive feature of girls with primary hypogonadotropic amenorrhea
The absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) - ambiguous symptom
is their appearance: the disproportionate figure, tall, long arms and legs, short torso, underdeveloped breasts and vulva. On examination it turns out that the internal genitals of girls, too, are underdeveloped.
Depending on what was the cause of the disease, there may be other symptoms.
For the correct diagnosis studied blood on hormones (TG, prolactin, estrogen, progesterone
Progesterone - norm and pathology
, Testosterone, thyroid hormones
Thyroid hormones: mechanism of action and physiological effects
, Adrenal hormones) and hormonal tests are carried out with progesterone hormonal contraceptives, glucocorticoid hormones. Always conducted genetic research to identify genetic mutations.
Always carried ultrasound, X-ray examinations of the hypothalamus, pituitary and female genitals. The purpose of these studies is to identify tumors, hemorrhages, diseases in these organs.
For the treatment of hypogonadotropic amenorrhea used human menopausal gonadotropin, for example, pergonal. The composition of this formulation consists of FSH and LH in a ratio of 1: 1. Get pergonal from human urine of post-menopausal. It has the effect of FSH and LH - stimulates the growth and maturation of the egg, increases the level of estrogen stimulates proliferation of the mucous membrane of the uterus and ovulation
Ovulation - How to determine as accurately as possible?
. Pergonal contraindicated in all tumors of the reproductive system and breast. In some cases, the appointment pergonal combined with the appointment of hormones of the hypothalamus or human chorionic gonadotropin (prophase).
Such treatments lead to a correction of hormonal, oocyte maturation, ovulation and restore regular menstrual bleeding.
Modern methods of treatment of various types of amenorrhea allow most women to experience the joy of motherhood.