Irregular menstrual cycle - a violation of the frequency or the duration of the menstrual cycle or menstrual period. The menstrual cycle - is the time interval between the first day of menstruation and the day before the start of the next menstrual period which can be from twenty-one to thirty-five days. For most women, the menstrual cycle is regular, but sometimes onset of menstruation may be delayed by one or two days.
Violation of the frequency or the duration of the menstrual cycle can be both short and long term. Long-term disorders - is, for example, the cycle duration is from month to month changes, or abnormal menstrual symptoms - including heavy bleeding, absence of menstruation for several months, pain during ovulation.
Short menstrual disorders may be caused by a variety of factors - from chronic fatigue
Chronic fatigue - if life is not a pleasant experience
and stress to the abuse of physical activity. Irregular menstrual cycle - a problem faced by the majority of modern women: according to statistics, one out of every five women have menstrual irregularities.
The main causes of irregular menstrual cycle include stress, emotional stress, taking certain medications, abusing caffeine and other substances that disrupt the function of the corpus luteum, or act as anticoagulants (substances that prevent blood clotting). we must remember that the menstrual cycle suggests any problems in the reproductive system of the female organism.
Smoking - another reason for irregular menstrual cycle proved that smoking shortens the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, that is the phase in which the egg ripens in the ovary. In addition, the constant smoking shortens the luteal phase. Finally, the cause of irregular menstrual cycle may be abusing alcohol.
For other common factors that cause menstrual disorders include:
- significant weight loss or, conversely, obesity
- excess physical exertion
- polycystic ovaries
- poor nutrition or eating disorders
- hormonal imbalance
- recent miscarriage or childbirth
- uterine disease (fibrosis, endometriosis, cysts)
Uterine bleeding in different age periods of life
If we divide the menstrual cycle of a woman's life periods, we can distinguish:
- juvenile bleeding;
- dysfunctional uterine bleeding in reproductive age;
- uterine bleeding in premenopausal;
- spotting in postmenopausal women.
The clinical picture of an irregular menstrual cycle
The most typical bleeding after a delay of 1, 5-6 months. Bleeding for a long period (more than six months), excessive and leads to anemia patient. However, bleeding may occur and after 14-16 days after the start of previous bleeding.
Perhaps appearance menstrual pain, pre-menstrual days or in mid-cycle. The nature of pain can be different, depending on the cause irregular menstrual cycles.
Thus, in miscarriage or birth submucosal uterine fibroids site pain will wear cramping in nature. And with menstrual irregularities due to anovulation and hyperandrogenism pain will dull or aching in the lower abdomen. Symptoms of bleeding is largely determined by the degree of blood loss. The higher the blood loss, the more pronounced weakness, dizziness, tachycardia
Tachycardia - the body to the limit?
, Anorexia. The general analysis of blood marked decrease in hemoglobin, red blood cells and platelets, lengthens the clotting time.
Diagnosis of irregular menstrual cycle
Diagnosis of irregular menstrual cycle is not complicated, and sometimes difficult to identify the cause. To do this, use:
- history and examination of the patient;
- Pelvic ultrasound;
- hysteroscopy uterus;
- Hormonal investigation;
- in difficult cases laparoscopy.
For the treatment of menstrual disorders first requires identification of the cause, which is performed by a series of tests - including blood tests, ultrasound, biopsy.
If the cause of menstrual disorders became a hormonal imbalance, the basic principle of treatment - receive relevant hormones. To remove cysts and other fibrotic formations require surgery. If the bleeding "guilty" intrauterine device - it is removed, followed by curettage of the uterus. If this is the abortion - the removal of remnants of the ovum with the selection of contraception. Treatment of juvenile uterine bleeding takes place in two phases: hemostasis and prevention of recurrence of bleeding. In mild cases carry hemostasis and treatment of symptomatic anemia. Then the girl recommended oral hormonal contraceptives.
In the case of major bleeding is shown therapeutic curettage
Scraping - heavy and unsafe procedure
the uterine cavity. Sometimes women in premenopausal age spend surgery (removal of the uterus), and, as a consequence of haemorrhage. Women of reproductive age are subjected to curettage
Curettage - how dangerous it is?
with histological study scraping and the appointment of hormones according to the analysis. Where indicated, together with surgical and hormonal hemostasis performed transfusions of blood and plasma.
Treatment of menstrual disorders, not least depends on the willingness of women to have children. If a woman is planning to become pregnant, then to normalize the menstrual cycle may be prescribed supplements or hormonal contraceptives.
Recurring menstrual irregularities observed, according to statistics, more than half of the women, so in most cases, access to a doctor when such violations are not required. Nevertheless, long-term narushenyai menstrual require mandatory consultation with a specialist.
Prevention of violations of the menstrual cycle is:
- normalization of power and the regime of the day;
- prevention of abortion;
- the selection of contraception;
- the struggle for a healthy lifestyle (treatment of STD).