Trigeminal nerve - Mixed nerve, which is composed of motor, sensory and autonomic branches. This is the fifth pair of cranial nerves, which departs from the nuclei in the brain and gives the three main branches - the eye (especially sensitive), maxillary (sensitive) and mandibular (mixed, consisting of sensory and motor nerves). In each of the three branches is and autonomic nerves.
The cause of the jamming of the trigeminal nerve
Entrapment of the trigeminal nerve may occur against a background of inflammation in the surrounding tissue. But more often it happens in traumatic nerve damage, such as a fractured skull, jaw injuries, operations on the upper or lower jaw, the maxillary sinus surgery, performed incorrectly anesthesia, removal of foreign bodies from the mouth, esophagus and upper respiratory tract. Quite often, the trigeminal nerve injury occurs during dental procedures: remove or dental treatment, dentoalveolar prosthesis, dental implants
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The main feature is the infringement of the trigeminal nerve pain. Pain can be of different intensity, they occur in areas that are innervated by the affected nerve branches, accompanied by disturbances of skin sensitivity to these same regions and much less - movement disorders that may occur in the muscles of the lower jaw.
Pain may be small, growing or very intense in the form of attacks ("beats like an electric shock"). Sometimes they are aching in nature and are accompanied by a feeling of numbness in the lower teeth, lower lip and chin on the side where the infringement occurred. The nature of pain can be constant, intermittent (that is amplified, then weakens). Significant infringement may be accompanied by paresis of the masticatory muscles and lockjaw (long convulsive contraction of the masticatory muscles, which manifests teeth clenching). During lockjaw patient can not eat, drink and talk. Violated the sensitivity of the oral mucosa with the relevant parties.
There may be symptoms of infringement of individual branches of nerves extending from the three main branches - the mental, lingual, buccal, upper alveolar, palatal nerves. Infringement of the mental nerve disorders accompanied by a crawling sensation in the body tingling and decreased tactile (by touching) the sensitivity of the lower lip and chin, as well as pain on the affected side. At the same time the full restoration of sensitivity sometimes occurs.
If the infringement of the trigeminal nerve disorders occur various autonomic functions. This is due to the fact that in each of the main branch of the trigeminal nerve extend acceding thereto autonomic fibers. Infringement of these fibers leads to disorders of the lacrimal, salivary, sweat and sebaceous glands, as well as blood circulation in the affected area. As a result, you may experience changes such as dryness of the eyes, ulceration of the cornea, ulceration in the nasolabial folds and the area of the wing of the nose, a violation of salivation.
Diagnosis and treatment
Diagnosis of infringement of the trigeminal nerve and its branches established on the basis of the characteristic symptoms of the disease and an additional survey data in the form of electric pulp test (EDI - checked electroexcitability soft tissue of the tooth, with the infringement of the trigeminal nerve is reduced EDI) electroneurogram (ENG), computer and magnetic resonance tomography.
Treatment of infringements of the trigeminal nerve
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traumatic origin often held conservative. When painful forms of conduct medication (pain relievers, vitamins B
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ATP), physiotherapy. But in some cases, if medical treatment is not effective, and continuing severe pain, surgery is carried out, for example, excision of the nerve and laying between the ends of nerve pieces of muscles, preventing recovery of the nerve. Surgical treatment is carried out in the case, if there is compression of the nerve growing tumor.
If the trigeminal nerve disadvantaged in injury fragments of bone filling material and other relevant cases, it is necessary to release him. To this end, various operations are carried out. Sometimes, when the infringement of major branches of the trigeminal nerve neurolysis performed - allocation
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nerve from scar to improve the conditions of its recovery.
At all stages of treatment are widely used physiotherapy. Please electrophoresis with analgesics and heat treatments, then electrical stimulation. In the recovery period prescribed physiotherapy.
In all cases of violation of the trigeminal nerve is conducted dental health.
To be repeated recurrences of pain, the patient is advised to avoid overcooling and overheating of the head, emotional overload, promptly treat any infections in the head.