Pantogam - User: not so simple with nootropami
November 6, 2011
Pantogam - nootropic drug that has a positive effect on the brain at any diseases and consequences of injuries, and increases brain activity and performance. It is used in various neurological and psychiatric diseases
Mental illness - ashamed to ask for help?
in adults and children.
The mechanism of action pantogam
Pantogam (INN - hopantenic acid) - a neuroprotective drugs with GABAergic activity. This means that it has a positive effect on the higher functions of the brain, stimulating learning, memory and mental activity, increasing the resistance of the brain to the damaging factors, improving the connection between the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures. This occurs through the strengthening of energy processes in the brain and improve blood circulation in the brain.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is an amino acid that is vital to the brain, it contributes to the normalization of metabolism
Metabolism: The basis of life of all living things
in the brain, sleep
Dreams: how to understand our dreams
, The relation between the processes of excitation and inhibition, reduces seizure. Pantogam represents pantothenic acid (vitamin B 15) coupled to GABA, so its effect is similar to the action of both substances. It stimulates the nervous system without causing overstimulation it protects the brain from lack of oxygen and toxic free radicals, increasing its resistance to toxic substances, stimulates the regenerative processes in the nerve cells. In addition, Pantogamum has good anticonvulsant activity, slightly sedative effect, the ability to reduce motor excitation. But at the same time it activates the performance and mental activity and slightly increases the overall body tone.
Pantogam has also antidizuricescoe action, ie inhibits pathologically increased reflex bladder and restore normal muscle tone, overlapping exit from the bladder into the urethra. This has allowed successfully applied Pantogamum when bedwetting (enuresis) in children.
Pantogam inhibit biochemical reactions by which decomposes on metabolites (metabolic products) novocaine and sulfonamides, therefore prolongs the duration of action. Has Pantogamum and analgesic properties, which enabled it to be successfully used for chronic headaches.
The drug is not toxic and does not have any adverse effects on the fetus, however, pregnancy it can be applied only in the second trimester.
There is a more modern version of the drug - Pantogamum asset, which included hopantenic acid isomer. This improves the speed of interaction between the active drug substance with the relevant neural receptors, so Pantogamum asset has a stronger nootropic and anticonvulsant effect.
Pantogamum Available as a 10% syrup in vials for children and tablets of 250 mg for adults. Pantogam asset is available in capsules of 200 and 300 mg. When administered Pantogamum rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and after an hour the concentration in the blood reaches a maximum. It is freely throughout all tissues, including brain tissue, and then unaltered excreted through the kidneys and intestines.
Indications and contraindications for receiving pantogam
Pantogam appoint the following diseases and conditions:
- cerebrovascular disorders;
- primary forms of senile dementia;
- organic lesions (in violation of the structure) of the brain (the consequences of injuries, strokes, tumors) of the brain, including schizophrenia;
- motor disorders associated with brain damage (eg Parkinson's disease);
- residual effects of infections with nervous system (neuroinfections);
- encephalitis occurred on the background of different vaccines;
- traumatic brain injuries (in the complex therapy);
- epilepsy (in the complex therapy);
- to reduce the side effects of certain drugs used in psychiatry for the suppression of the excitation (neuroleptics)
- high psychoemotional loads and stress;
- reducing fatigue and disability (mental and physical);
Contraindications pantogam are:
- hypersensitivity to the drug;
- severe kidney disease in violation of their functions;
- I trimester of pregnancy (12 weeks) and the period of breast-feeding;
- for receiving tablets pantogam - the age of three;
- for receiving capsules pantogam asset - the age of 18 years.
Side effects and overdose pantogam
In most cases Pantogamum well tolerated, the producers point out that allergic reactions such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, various skin rashes. There are also changes in the central nervous system: insomnia or drowsiness, ringing in his head - these effects are transient in nature and are not a reason to cancel pantogam.
Overdose pantogam manifested in increased side effects in the central nervous system. It is recommended to wash the stomach and take activated charcoal
Activated carbon - old but indispensable
You can not assign a long-term treatment several nootropics. Pantogam prolongs the action of some sleeping pills (barbiturates, while preventing their side effects) and novocaine, enhances the action of anticonvulsant and neuroprotective drugs.
Multiple sclerosis - whether in remission?
April 1, 2007
Multiple Sclerosis - it is hard, debilitating disease in which the body's immune system destroys the protective sheath covering nerve fibers. This breaks the connection between the brain and other parts of the body. Ultimately, this can result in damage to the nerves themselves that already is a reversible process.
There is no cure for MS, but there are treatments that allow you to cope with the attacks, control of the disease and treat the symptoms.
Signs and symptoms of MS vary depending on the location of nerve fibers affected by the disease. Common symptoms of multiple sclerosis:
- Numbness or weakness of one or more limbs, usually on one side of the body, or in the lower half of the body.
- Partial or complete loss of vision, usually affects one eye, often accompanied by pain during movement of the eye (optic neuritis).
- Ghosting visible objects, or blurred vision.
- Tingling or pain in parts of the body.
- Sensations, resembling an electric shock, appearing at certain head movements.
- The tremor, incoordination and unsteady gait.
Most people with multiple sclerosis, especially in the early stages of the disease, the case of aggravation that follow periods of complete or partial remission. Symptoms of multiple sclerosis often appear or are aggravated by raising the temperature of the body.
The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown. It is considered an autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys healthy body tissue, but it is not clear why this process begins. In multiple sclerosis, during this process destroys myelin - a fatty substance that covers and protects nerves in the brain and spinal cord.
Myelin can be compared with insulated electrical wires. When myelin is damaged, passing on nerve messages begin to move more slowly, or not reach the destination.
Doctors still do not understand why multiple sclerosis develops in some people, while others - not. It is expected that the development of the disease plays a role of a combination of many factors, from genetic peculiarities and ending of childhood infections.
These factors can increase the risk of multiple sclerosis:
- Age from 20 to 40 years. Multiple sclerosis can occur at any age, but most often it affects people in this age group.
- Paul. Women are twice as likely to suffer from multiple sclerosis than men.
- Multiple sclerosis is a family history. If one of your parents, brothers and sisters, had multiple sclerosis, the likelihood of developing this disease you have is between 1 and 3% - compared with 0.1% for the rest of the population. However, experience studies of identical twins
If you have twins: Ten Smiles
It shows that heredity is not the only factor that determines the susceptibility to the development of multiple sclerosis. If it were only in genetics, in identical twins would have the same risk of developing this disorder. In fact, if one twin became ill with multiple sclerosis, the probability that the sick and the other is only 30%.
- Certain infections. Some viruses, such as Epstein - Barr virus and virus causing infectious mononucleosis, is associated with increased likelihood of developing multiple sclerosis.
- Race. The most likely to develop multiple sclerosis Caucasians, especially those who belong to the peoples of Northern Europe.
- Accommodation in temperate countries. If a child moves from site associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis in the area of low risk, or vice versa, the likelihood of developing this disorder is due to a new place of residence. If the transfer took place after puberty
Transitional age - the period of emotional turmoil
The degree of risk will correspond to the place of birth.
- The presence of some other autoimmune diseases. The risk of multiple sclerosis increases with little thyroid diseases
The thyroid gland - is responsible for your hormones
, The first type of diabetes or inflammatory bowel disease
Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Symptoms and Treatment
In some cases, patients with multiple sclerosis develop the following complications:
- Muscle stiffness and / or cramps;
- Paralysis, most often - the legs;
- Problems with the bladder, bowel or sexual function;
- Mental changes, such as forgetfulness or difficulty concentrating;
Can you get multiple sclerosis?
No way! In particular, we have recently been a number of studies, which have become the object of children adopted by families in which one parent is sick with multiple sclerosis. So, these studies have shown that these children are at risk of MS is not greater than their peers growing up in healthy families. According to the results of other studies of MS, the number of cases among married couples the same level as the incidence of non-communicable diseases. This fact should be stressed - MS is not transmitted through contact, either airborne or sexually. Multiple Sclerosis - it is not contagious or infectious disease.
What types of multiple sclerosis are there?
There are four major types of MS:
- Remitting multiple sclerosis
This type of MS is characterized by relapses (exacerbations) during which new symptoms can appear and old resume or intensify. During relapses followed by periods of remission, during which fully or partially recover lesion acquired during an exacerbation. Relapse can last for several days, weeks or even months, and recovery can be very slow, gradual or almost immediate. Most patients with multiple sclerosis is a disease is diagnosed only after first remission (relapse). Typically, MS are diagnosed between the ages of 20 or 30 years, but there are cases of diagnosis at an earlier or later age. Women suffer from multiple sclerosis twice as often as men.
- Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis
After several years of illness remitting multiple sclerosis often turns into a secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. This type of the disease characterized by a gradual deterioration of the patient in remission (between relapses). In the early stages of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patient may experience relapses, but they gradually merge, and the patient's condition is getting worse all the Bole. Patients with SPMS can be days or weeks of improvement or worsening, but recovery does not take place (if you do not take into account the short periods of remission). Approximately 50% of patients with remitting multiple sclerosis is a disease in ten years passes in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. In 90% of patients, this transition occurs after 25 or 30 years.
- Progressive remitting multiple sclerosis
This type of multiple sclerosis progresses from the beginning, occasionally punctuated by relapses. Directly behind the exacerbation should be a significant improvement in the patient's condition, but between relapses symptoms gradually worsen.
- Primary progressive multiple sclerosis
This type of multiple sclerosis is characterized by a gradual progression of the disease, without any remission. In the course of the disease may be decreasing periods of disease activity, as is typical of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, the patient's condition may improve or worsen a few days or weeks. PPRS differs from remitting multiple sclerosis and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis because it was first diagnosed at the age of 35-40 years, men are at risk of developing PPRS not less than women, and the initial inflammatory process not concentrated in the brain and in the spinal cord. Primary progressive multiple sclerosis often captures and brain, but it is less exposed areas of the brain than remitting or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis - for example, in patients less likely PPRS reduce intelligence.